జిహాద్

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు

జిహాద్ (Jihad) అనగా ఆశయ సాధన కోసం శక్తివంచన లేకుండా నిర్విరామంగా కృషి చేయడం, పోరాడటం. దీన్ని కొంతవరకూ స్ట్రగుల్ అనే ఆంగ్ల పదంతో పోల్చవచ్చు. ఇంకా విసృతంగా చెప్పాలంటే నిరంతరం ఆశయాన్నే దృష్టిలో పెట్టుకొని దాని కోసం పధకాలు రూపొందిచడం, వాక్కు , వ్రాతల ద్వారా ప్రచారం చేయడం, అందుబాటులో ఉండే వనరులన్నీ వినియోగించుకోవడం, అనివార్యమైతే ఆయుధం చేపట్టి పోరాడటం, అవసరమైతే ఆ మార్గంలో ప్రాణాలు సైతం ధారబోయడం - ఇవన్నీ జిహాద్ క్రిందికే వస్తాయి. దైవ ప్రసన్నత పొందే సత్సంకల్పంతో ధర్మ పరిరక్షణ కోసం హింసా దౌర్జన్యాలను అరికట్టేందుకు చేసే ఇలాంటి పోరాటాన్ని 'జిహాద్ ఫీ సబిలిల్లాహ్' (దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాటం) అందురు. [1] ఇస్లాం మతంలో నాల్గవ స్థంభము జిహాద్. దీనిని గురించి పవిత్ర ఖురాన్ లో ఈ క్రింది విధంగా చెప్పబడింది.

  • మీతో పోరాడే వారితో మీరు దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాడండి. అయితే హద్దు మీరకూడదు. హద్దు మీరి ప్రవర్తించేవారిని దేవుడు ఎన్నటికీ ప్రేమించడు. వారు మీకు ఎక్కడ ఎదురైనా సరే పోరాడండి. వారు మిమ్మల్ని ఎక్కడనుండి వెళ్ళగొట్టారో ఆక్కడనుండి మీరూ వారిని వెళ్ళగొట్టండి. హత్య తీవ్రమైన విషయమేగాని హింసా పీడనలు అంతకంటే తీవ్రమైన విషయాలు. వారు ప్రతిష్టాలయం దగ్గర మీతో పోరాడనంత వరకూ మీరు కూడా వారితో పోరాడకండి. అయితే వారు అక్కడా కయ్యానికి కాలు దువ్వితే మీరు కూడా వారిని నిస్సంకోచంగా ఎదుర్కొని హతమార్చండి. సత్య తిరస్కారులకు ఇదే తగిన శిక్ష. (సురా 2: 190, 191)
  • పవిత్ర మాసాలు ముగిసిపోగానే విగ్రహారాధికులను యుద్ధంలో ఎక్కడ ఎదురైతే అక్కడ వధించండి. వారిని పట్టుకోండి. వారిని చుట్టుముట్టండి. వారి కోసం అనువైన ప్రతిచోటా మాటువేసి కూర్చోండి. ఒకవేళ వారు క్షమాణ చెప్పుకొని నమాజ్, జకాత విధులు పాటించడం ప్రారంభిస్తే వారిని వదిలిపెట్టండి. (సురా 9:5)

జిహాద్ (ఆంగ్లం :Jihad : అరబ్బీ :جهاد ), ఒక ఇస్లామీయ పదజాలము (అరబ్బీ పదజాలము). జిహాద్ లో పాల్గొనువారిని "ముజాహిద్" (ఏకవచనం) లేదా "ముజాహిదీన్" (బహువచనం) అని పిలుస్తారు.

జిహాద్ లు రెండు రకాలు
1. జిహాద్-ఎ-కుబ్రా 
మనలోని మంచి చెడు ల మధ్య జరిగే అంతర్గతపోరాటం
2. జిహాద్-ఎ-సొగ్రా 
మన చుట్టూ జరిగే చెడును నివారించటంకోసం చేసే బహిర్గత పోరాటం.

విషయ సూచిక

పద ఉపయోగం

జిహాద్ అనే పదము ముస్లిం సమాజములో ఒక సాధారణ పదము, కానీ ప్రపంచవ్యాప్తంగా ఈ పదము ఇస్లాం కొరకు "పవిత్ర యుద్ధం" (holy war on behalf of Islam) అనే భావంతో ఉపయోగింపబడుచున్నది.[2] విశాల దృష్టితో చూసిన యెడల, ఈ పదము, హింస మరియు అహింస అనే రెండు భావనలనూ కలిగివున్నది. దీని సాధారణ అర్థం " దైనందిన జీవితంలో చెడు, అన్యాయం మరియు అణగార్పుకు వ్యతిరేకంగా పోరాడుతూ, ఇస్లామిక్ విలువలతో గూడిన స్వచ్ఛమైన సాధారణ జీవితం గడిపే విధము" [3] అయిననూ ఈ పదము చర్చనీయాంశముగానూ వివాదాస్పదం గానూ వున్నది.

జిహాద్-ఎ-కుబ్రా (పెద్ద జిహాద్)

Within Islamic belief, Muhammad is said to have regarded the inner struggle for faith the "greater jihad", prioritizing it over physical fighting in defense of the Ummah, or members of the global Islamic community.[4] One famous hadith has the prophet saying: "We have returned from the lesser jihad (battle) to the greater jihad (jihad of the soul)."[5] Muslim scholar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goal of true jihad is to attain a harmony between islam (submission), iman (faith), and ihsan (righteous living)."[6] Greater jihad can be compared to the struggle that Christians refer to as "resisting sin", i.e. fighting temptation, doubt, disbelief, or detraction. The greater jihad is about holding fast against any ideas and practices that run contrary to the Muhammad's revelations (Qur'an), sayings (Hadith) and the examples set by how he lived his life (Sunnah). This concept of jihad has does not correspond to any military action.

In Modern Standard Arabic, jihad is one of the correct terms for a struggle for any cause, violent or not, religious or secular (though كفاح kifāḥ is also used).[ఆధారం కోరబడినది] For instance, Mahatma Gandhi's struggle for Indian independence is called a "jihad" in Modern Standard Arabic (as well as many other dialects of Arabic); the terminology is applied to the fight for women's liberation.[7]

In modern times, Pakistani scholar and professor Fazlur Rahman Malik has used the term to describe the struggle to establish "just moral-social order",[8] while President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that country.[9]

జిహాద్-ఎ-సొగ్రా (జిహాద్ బిల్ సైఫ్)

దస్త్రం:Taheri-azar letter.jpg
A part of Meditation II from Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar's justification for his terrorist attack at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Meditation II has appeared on numerous websites critical of Islam.

Within Islamic jurisprudence jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law, and may be declared against apostates, rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, non-Islamic leaders or non-Muslim combatants, but there are other ways to perform jihad as well, including civil disobedience. The primary aim of jihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the Islamic state.[10][11][2]

In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules associated with armed warfare are covered at great length.[11] Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.[12] More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.[11] Although some Islamic scholars have differed on the implementation of Jihad, there is consensus amongst them that the concept of jihad will always include armed struggle against persecution and oppression.[13]

Jihad has also been applied to offensive, aggressive warfare, as exemplified by Muhammad's own policies and the entire subsequent history of the spread of Islam. From the first generation of Islam, jihad ideology inspired the conquest of non-Muslim populations, forcing them to submit to Muslim rule or accept outright conversion (although conversion was not generally demanded of "Peoples of the Book," this too could be forcibly imposed on non-"Peoples of the Book"). Jihad ideologies also inspired internal civil conflict, as can be seen in early movements like the Kharijites and the contemporary Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization (which assassinated Anwar Al Sadat) as well as Jihad organizations in Lebanon, the Gulf states, and Indonesia.[14] When used to describe warfare between Islamic groups or individuals, such as al-Qaeda's attacks on civilians in Iraq, perpetrators of violence often cite collaboration with non-Islamic powers as a justification.[15] Terrorist attacks like that of September 11, 2001, which was planned and executed by radical Islamic fundamentalists, have not been sanctioned by more centrist groups of Muslims.[16] This kind of terrorism has been condemned by Muslims all around the world.[17][18]

The word itself has been recorded in English since 1869, in the Muslim sense, and has been used for any doctrinal jihad since c. 1880.[19]

వివాదం

Controversy has arisen over whether use of the term jihad without further explanation refers to jihad of the sword, and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage.[20]

Middle East historian Bernard Lewis argues that "the overwhelming majority of classical theologians, jurists, and traditionalists [i.e., specialists in the hadith] ... understood the obligation of jihad in a military sense."[21]

Scholar David Cook writes:

In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporary and classical -- one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language (such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study Sufism and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible.[22]

And according to Douglas Streusand, "in hadith collections, jihad means armed action; for example, the 199 references to jihad in the most standard collection of hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari, all assume that jihad means warfare."[23]

Some fundamentalist Muslim traditionalists see that the world is divided into two houses: the House of Islamic Peace (Dar al-Salam), in which Muslim governments rule and Muslim law prevails, and the House of War (Dar al-Harb), the rest of the world, still inhabited. The presumption is that by natural law these domains will compete and fighting is inevitable therefore the duty of jihad will continue, interrupted only by truces, until all the world either adopts the Muslim faith or submits to Muslim rule. Those who fight in the jihad qualify for rewards in both worlds — treasure in this one, paradise in the next. For most of the recorded history of Islam, from the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad onward, the word jihad was used in a primarily military sense.[24]

Nevertheless, the hadith is there, and the fact remains that ideas regarding which hadith are to be considered "controversial" are more often than not based upon the preconceived ideology of certain factions rather than the consensus of the ummah, or even historical or theological exegesis. Furthermore, all of the greatest saints (wali) of Islam and the majority of the ummah have supported Muhammad's interpretation of jihad according to this hadith, as well as that of the Qur'an itself, as being critical to daily religious practice in which the believer is urged to engage in struggle (jihad) within oneself (nafs) against the incessant promptings of the evil one.[25]

A number of Islamic scholars have distinguished jihad, as legitimate struggle, from fasad, as illegitimate violence and troublemaking, and argue that terrorism should be called fasad, not jihad.

జిహాద్ చరిత్ర

మూలాలు

The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Qu’ran.[26] This word of Allah explicitly encourages the use of Jihad against the unbelievers.[27] Sura 25, verse 52 states: “Therefore, do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with this, a great striving.”[28] It was, therefore, the duty of all Muslims to strive against those who did not believe in Allah and took offensive action against Muslims. The Qu’ran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” The struggle for Jihad in the Qu’ran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Qu’ranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries[27]. The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.[26]

ప్రారంభంలో జిహాద్ ఉదాహరణలు

The first forms of military Jihad occurred after the migration (hijra) of Muhammad and his small group of followers to Medina from Mecca and the conversion of several inhabitants of the city to Islam. The first revelation concerning the struggle against the Meccans was surah 22, verses 39-40:[29]

To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).

—Abdullah Yusuf Ali

There were several reasons for Muhammad and his followers to fight the Meccans:[30] For one, Muslims were defending themselves against the Meccans' attack. According to this surah 2, verse 190 was revealed:

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.

—Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The Muslims had - at least partially - provoked the Meccans to attack them by robbing the goods of their caravans.[31] However, this was inevitable, for the Emigrants (the Muslims who had fled from Mecca to Yathrib/Medina) had lost all of their goods because of the Meccans and needed a livelihood.[32] They robbed goods from Meccan caravans, which was considered justified at that time.[32]

At this time, Muslims had been persecuted and oppressed by the Meccans.[33] There were still Muslims who couldn't flee from Mecca and were still oppressed because of their faith. Surah 4, verse 75 is referring to this fact:

And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)?- Men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!

—Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The Meccans also refused to let the Muslims enter Mecca and by that denied them access to theKa'aba. Surah 8, verse 34:

But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them, when they keep out (men) from the sacred Mosque - and they are not its guardians? No men can be its guardians except the righteous; but most of them do not understand.

—Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The main focus of Muhammad’s later years was increasing the number of allies as well as the amount of territory under Muslim control.[34] The Qu’ran is unclear as to whether Jihad is acceptable only in defense of the faith from wrong-doings or in all cases.[26]

Major battles in the history of Islam arose between the Meccans and the Muslims; one of the most important to the latter was the Battle of Badr in 624 AD.[34] This Muslim victory over polytheists showed “demonstration of divine guidance and intervention on behalf of Muslims, even when outnumbered.”[35] Other early battles included battles in Uhud (625), Khandaq (627), Mecca (630) and Hunayn (630). These battles, especially Uhud and Khandaq, were unsuccessful in comparison to the Battle of Badr.[34]. In relating this battle, the Qu’ran states that Allah sent an “unseen army of angels” that helped the Muslims defeat the Meccans.[36]

జిహాద్ మరియు క్రూసేడులు

The European crusaders conquered much of the territory held within the Islamic state, dividing it into four kingdoms, the most important being the state of Jerusalem. The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land (former Christian territory) from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. There was little drive to retake the lands from the crusaders, save the few attacks made by the Egyptian Fatimids. This changed, however, with the coming of Zangi, ruler of what is today northern Iraq. He took Edessa, which triggered the Second Crusade, which was little more than a 47-year stalemate. The stalemate was ended with the victory of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (known in the west as Saladin) over the forces of Jerusalem at the Horns of Hattin in 1187. It was during the course of the stalemate that a great deal of literature regarding Jihad was written.[34] While amassing his armies in Syria, Saladin had to create a doctrine which would unite his forces and make them fight until the bitter end, which would be the only way they could re-conquer the lands taken in the First Crusade. He did this through the creation of Jihad propaganda. It stated that any one who would abandon the Jihad would be committing a sin that could not be washed away by any means. It also put his amirs at the center of power, just under his rule. While this propaganda was successful in uniting his forces for a time, the fervor burned out quickly. Much of Saladin's teachings were rejected after his death.[37]

ఇస్లామీయ స్పెయిన్ మరియు పోర్చుగల్

Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Iberian kingdoms, bringing back treasure and slaves. In raid against Lisbon in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[38]

The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e. "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), was a Berber, Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all Northern Africa as far as Libya, together with Al-Andalus (Moorish Spain). The Almohads, who declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians, far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly.[39] Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.[40][41] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[40] while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[42][43]

భారత ఉపఖండం

Sir Jadunath Sarkar contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic Jihad against Hindus in India to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects."[44] In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, Mahmud al-Ghazni's secretary, in the Tarikh-i-Yamini document several episodes of bloody military campaigns. In 1527, Babur ordered a Jihad against Rajputs at the battle of Khanwa. Publicly addressing his men, he declared the forthcoming battle a Jihad. His soldiers were facing a non-Muslim army for the first time ever. This, he said, was their chance to become either a Ghazi (soldier of Islam) or a Shaheed (Martyr of Islam). The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb waged a Jihad against those identified as heterodox within India's Islamic community, such as Shi'a Muslims.[45][46]

తైమూర్ లంగ్

తైమూర్ లంగ్, 14వ శతాబ్దానికి చెందిన టర్కో-మంగోల్ దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన వాడు. పశ్చిమ మరియు మధ్యాసియా ప్రాంతాలను జయించాడు. ఇతను తనకు తాను "గాజీ" (పవిత్రయుద్ధం చేసేవాడు) అని ప్రకటించుకున్నాడు. కానీ ఇతను కేవలం తన రాజ్యకాంక్షను పూర్ణం చేసుకొనుటకు చెంగిజ్ ఖాన్ లా ఘోరమైన దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టాడు. ఇతను దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన రాజ్యాలు దాదాపు ముస్లింల రాజ్యాలే. అయిననూ ఇతను తన దండయాత్రలకు జిహాద్ అనే పేరు పెట్టుకుని ముస్లింలనే మట్టుబెట్టే మారణహోమం సృష్టించాడు.[47]

ఫూలాని జిహాద్‌లు

The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across West Africa between the late 17th century and European colonization, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region.[48] Between 1750 and 1900, between one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.[49]

కాకసస్

In 1784, Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen warrior and Muslim mystic, led a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout the Caucasus in a ghazavat, or holy war, against the Russian invaders.[50] Sheikh Mansur was captured in 1791 and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress. Avarian Islamic scholar Ghazi Muhammad preached that Jihad would not occur until the Caucasians followed Sharia completely rather than following a mixture of Islamic laws and adat (customary traditions). By 1829, Mullah began proselytizing and claiming that obeying Sharia, giving zakat, prayer, and hajj would not be accepted by Allah if the Russians were still present in the area. He even went on to claim that marriages would become void and children bastards if any Russians were still in the Caucasus. In 1829 he was proclaimed imam in Ghimry, where he formally made the call for a holy war. In 1834, Ghazi Muhammad died at the battle of Ghimri, and Imam Shamil took his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance. Imam Shamil succeeded in accomplishing what Sheik Mansur had started: to unite North Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against the Russian Empire. He was a leader of anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War and was the third Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1834-1859).[51][52]

సూడాన్ లో మహదీలు

During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces.[53][54] Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi was a religious leader, who proclaimed himself the Mahdi - the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will appear at end times - in 1881, and declared a Jihad against Ottoman rulers. He declared all "Turks" infidels and called for their execution.[55] The Mahdi raised an army and led a successful religious war to topple the Ottoman-Egyptian occupation of Sudan. Victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery. In the West he is most famous for defeating and later killing British general Charles George Gordon, in the fall of Khartoum.[56]

వహాబీలు

The Saudi Salafi sheiks were convinced that it was their religious mission to wage Jihad against all other forms of Islam. In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabists under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq, massacred the Shiites and destroyed the tombs of the Shiite Imam Husayn and Ali bin Abu Talib. In 1802 they occupied Taif where they massacred the population. In 1803 and 1804 the Wahhabis captured Mecca and Medina, destroying monuments and various holy Muslim sites and shrines, such as the shrine built over the tomb of Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad, and even intended to destroy the grave of Muhammad himself.[57][58][59][60][61]

ఉస్మానియా సామ్రాజ్యం

Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman the Magnificent began a series of military conquests in Europe.[62] On August 29, 1526, he defeated Louis II of Hungary (1516–26) at the battle of Mohács. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed and the Ottoman Empire became the preeminent power in Central and Eastern Europe.[63] In July 1683 Sultan Mehmet IV proclaimed a Jihad and the Turkish grand vizier, Kara Mustafa Pasha, laid siege to the Vienna with an army of 138,000 men.[64][65][66]

On November 14, 1914, in Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, the religious leader Sheikh-ul-Islam declares Jihad on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging Muslims all over the world - including in the Allied countries - to take up arms against Britain, Russia, France and Serbia and Montenegro in World War I.[67] On the other hand, Sheikh Hussein ibn Ali, the Emir of Mecca, refused to accommodate Ottoman requests that he endorse this jihad, a requirement that was necessary were a jihad to become popular, on the grounds that:

'the Holy War was doctrinally incompatible with an aggressive war, and absurd with a Christian ally: Germany'[68]

ఆఫ్ఘనిస్తాన్

Ahmad Shah, founder of the Durrani Empire, declared a jihad against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes answered his call. The Third battle of Panipat (January 1761), fought between largely Muslim and largely Hindu armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each, was waged along a twelve-kilometre front, and resulted in a decisive victory for Ahmad Shah.[69]

In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns; although Amanullah Khan banned slavery in Afghanistan during his reign,[70] the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.[71]

The First Anglo-Afghan War (1838–42) was one of Britain’s most ill-advised and disastrous wars. William Brydon was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.[72] As in the earlier wars against the British and Soviets, Afghan resistance to the American invaders took the traditional form of a Muslim holy war against the infidels.[73] During September 2002, the remnants of the Taliban forces began a recruitment drive in Pashtun areas in both Afghanistan and Pakistan to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the pro-Western Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. Pamphlets distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad.[74] Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in guerrilla warfare and terrorist tactics, according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report.[75]

Most of the new recruits were drawn from the madrassas or religious schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan, from which the Taliban had originally arisen. As of 2008, the insurgency, in the form of a Taliban guerrilla war, continues.

Alhough there is no evidence that the CIA directly supported the Taliban or Al Qaeda, some basis for military support of the Taliban was provided when, in the early 1980s, the CIA and the ISI (Pakistan's Interservices Intelligence Agency) provided arms to Afghan mujahideens resisting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan,[76] and the ISI assisted the process of gathering radical Muslims from around the world to fight against the Soviets. Osama Bin Laden was one of the key players in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers. The U.S. poured funds and arms into Afghanistan, and "by 1987, 65,000 tons of U.S.-made weapons and ammunition a year were entering the war."[77]

అల్జీరియా

In 1830, Algeria was invaded by France; French colonial domination over Algeria supplanted what had been domination in name only by the Ottoman Empire. Within two years, `Abd al-Qādir was made an amir and with the loyalty of a number of tribes began a jihad against the French. He was effective at using guerrilla warfare and for a decade, up until 1842, scored many victories. He was noted for his chivalry. On December 21, 1847, Abd al-Qādir was forced to surrender.[78]

Abd al-Qadir is recognized and venerated as the first hero of Algerian independence. Not without cause, his green and white standard was adopted by the Algerian liberation movement during the War of Independence and became the national flag of independent Algeria.

The Algerian Civil War (1991–2002) was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991. By 1997, the organized jihad in Algeria had disintegrated into criminal thuggery and Algeria was wracked by massacres of intense brutality and unprecedented size.[79][80]

ముస్లిం సమూహాలలో జిహాద్

సున్నీ దృష్టికోణం

Jihad has been classified either as al-jihād al-akbar (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (nafs), or al-jihād al-asghar (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite view of jihad as well).

Gibril Haddad has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", Jihad al-akbar. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded hadeeth, in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Qur'an and other writings.[81][82]

On the other hand, the Hanbali scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya did believe that "internal Jihad" is important[83] but he suggests those hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".[84] Contemporary Islamic scholar Abdullah Yusuf Azzam has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."[85]

Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of jihad fi sabilillah (struggle in the cause of God):[86]

  • Jihad of the heart (jihad bil qalb/nafs) is concerned with combatting the devil and in the attempt to escape his persuasion to evil. This type of Jihad was regarded as the greater jihad (al-jihad al-akbar).
  • Jihad by the tongue (jihad bil lisan) is concerned with speaking the truth and spreading the word of Islam with one's tongue.
  • Jihad by the hand (jihad bil yad) refers to choosing to do what is right and to combat injustice and what is wrong with action.
  • Jihad by the sword (jihad bis saif) refers to qital fi sabilillah (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by Salafi Muslims and offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad, the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.[87]

సూఫీల దృష్టికోణం

The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two; the "Greater Jihad" and the "Lesser Jihad". Muhammad put the emphasis on the "greater Jihad" by saying that "Holy is the warrior who is at war with himself". In this sense external wars and strife are seen but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad" which can only be fought and won within; no other Salvation existing can save man without the efforts of the man himself being added to the work involved of self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the Holy Grail which comes closest to the Sufic ideal; for to the Sufis Perfection is the Grail; and the Holy Grail is for those who after they become perfect by giving all they have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God". (Genesis:5:24) here the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".

జిహాద్ మరియు యుద్ధం

The Qur’an asserts that if the use of force would not have been allowed in curbing the evils by nations, the disruption and disorder caused by insurgent nations could have reached the extent that the places of worship would have become deserted and forsaken. As it states:

And had it not been that Allah checks one set of people with another, the monasteries and churches, the synagogues and the mosques, in which His praise is abundantly celebrated would have been utterly destroyed.

Qur'an

జావేద్ అహ్మద్ గమీది divides just warfare into two types:

  1. Against injustice and oppression
  2. Against the rejecters of truth after it has become evident to them

The first type of Jihad is generally considered eternal, but Ghamidi holds that the second is specific to people who were selected by God for delivering the truth as an obligation. They are called witnesses of the truth (Arabic:شهادة, see also Itmam al-hujjah); the implication being that they bear witness to the truth before other people in such a complete and ultimate manner that no one is left with an excuse to deny the truth.[13] There is a dispute among Islamic jurists as to whether the act of being "witness" was only for the Companions of Muhammad or whether this responsibility is still being held by modern Muslims, which may entitle them to take actions to subdue other Non-Muslim nations. Proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being "the witness" translate the following verse only for the Companions[13] while others translate it for the whole Muslim nation.[88] As in Qur'an:

And similarly [O Companions of the Prophet!] We have made you an intermediate group[89] so that you be witnesses [to this religion] before the nations, and the Messenger be such a witness before you.

Similarly, proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being "the witness" present following verse to argue that the Companions were chosen people as witnesses just as God chooses Messengers from mankind. As in Qur'an:[13]

He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the religion of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this [Qur’an]: [He chose you so that] the Messenger may be a witness [of this religion] to you, and you be witnesses of this religion to non-Muslims [of your times].

Following is the first verse of the Qur’an in which the Companions of Muhammad, who had migrated from Mecca, were given permission to fight back if they were attacked:[13]

Permission to take up arms is hereby given to those who are attacked because they have been oppressed – Allah indeed has power to grant them victory – those who have been unjustly driven from their homes, only because they said: “Our Lord is Allah”.

The reason for this directive in Medina instead of Mecca considered by most Muslim scholars is that without political authority armed offensives become tantamount to spreading disorder and anarchy in the society. As one of Islamic jurist writes:

Among Kafayah obligations, the third category is that for which the existence of a ruler is necessary e.g., Jihad and execution of punishments. Therefore, only a ruler has this prerogative. Because, indeed, no one else has the right to punish another person.

ఆత్మరక్షణ పోరాటం

ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటం (Defensive Jihad) అనే పద జాలం ప్రస్తుతం అమెరికా సామ్రాజ్యవాదానికి వ్యతిరేకంగా జరుగుతున్న ఇస్లామిక్ ఉద్యమాల విషయంలో ఉపయొగించడం కనిపిస్తోంది. ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటంలో పాల్గొనే సంస్థలలో లెబనాన్ దేశానికి చెందిన హిజ్బుల్లాహ్ ఒకటి. అరబ్బీ భాష జిహాద్ అంటే పోరాటం అని అర్థం. ఖురాన్ లో కూడా ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటం గురించి నిర్వచించడం జరిగింది. ఖురాన్ నిర్వచనంలో జిహాద్ అంటే ఉనికి (అస్తిత్వం) కోసం పోరాటం.[90]

యుద్ధ నియమాలు

The directive of the Jihad given to Muslims in Qur'an is:[13]

These verses told Muslims that they should not merely fight the Banu Quraish if they resist them in offering Hajj, but the Qur’an goes on to say that they should continue to fight them until persecution is uprooted and Islam prevails in the whole of Arabia. Initially Muslims were required to fulfill this responsibility even if the enemy was 10 times stronger. Afterwards, the Qur'an reduced the burden of this responsibility.[13] As in Qur'an:

Prophet! Rouse the believers to wage war. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred: if a hundred, they will subdue a thousand of the disbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.

[From] now, God has lightened your [task] for He knows that there is now weakness amongst you: But [ever so], if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred, and if a thousand, they will subdue two thousand, with the leave of God: for God is with those who patiently persevere.

Some interpret above verses that Jihad never becomes obligatory unless the military might of the Muslims is up to a certain level. In the times of Muhammad, when large scale conversions took place in the later phase, the Qur'an reduced the Muslim to enemy ratio to 1:2. It seems that Muslims should not only consolidate their moral character, but it is also imperative for them to build their military might if they want to wage Jihad when the need arises. The Qur’an gave a similar directive to Muslims of Muhammad times in the following words:[13]

Muster against them all the men and cavalry at your disposal so that you can strike terror into the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others beside them who may be unknown to you, though Allah knows them. And remember whatever you spend for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you. You shall not be wronged.

While other scholars consider the later command of ratio 1:2 only for a particular time.[91]

A policy was adopted regarding the extent of requirement that arose in wars that the Muslims had to fight. In the battles of Badr, Uhud and Tabuk, the responsibility was much more and each Muslim was required to present his services as a combatant.[13] As in Qur'an:

Not equal are those of the believers who sit [at home] without any [genuine] excuse and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has given preference by a degree to those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit [at home]. [In reality], for each, Allah has made a good promise and [in reality] Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight above those who sit [at home] by a huge reward. Degrees of [higher] grades from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Qur'an also states that turning backs in the battle field, except for tactical purposes, is a big sin and will bring wrath of God.[92] As in Qur'an:

O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day-- unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be.

The driving force

Islamic scholars agree that Jihad should not be undertaken to gratify one’s whims nor to obtain wealth and riches. Many also consider that it must also not be undertaken to conquer territories and rule them or to acquire fame or to appease the emotions of communal support, partisanship and animosity. On the contrary, it should be undertaken only and only for the cause of Allah as is evident from the words.[13] As in Qur'an:

Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.

Prophet Muhammad, at various instances, also explained very forcefully this purport of the Qur’an:

  • Abu Musa Ash‘ari (rta) narrates that once a person came to the Prophet (sws) and said that some people fight for the spoils of war, some for fame and some to show off their valor; he then asked the Prophet (sws): “Which one of them fights in the way of Allah”. The Prophet (sws) replied: “Only that person fights in the way of Allah who sets foot in the battlefield to raise high the name of Allah”. Sahih Bukhari 2810
  • Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “I swear by the Almighty that a person who is wounded in the way of Allah – and Allah knows full well who is actually wounded in His way – he would be raised on the Day of Judgement such that his colour be the colour of blood with the fragrance of musk around him”. Sahih Bukhari 2803
  • Ibn Jabr narrates from the Prophet (sws): “A person whose feet become dust ridden because of [striving] in the way of Allah will never be touched by the flames of Hell”. Sahih Bukhari 2811
  • Sahal Ibn Sa‘ad says that the Prophet (sws) once said: “To reside in a border area for a day to protect [people] against an enemy [invasion] is better than this world and everything it has”. Sahih Bukhari 2892.

Similarly as a reward for participation in such a strive, the Qur'an states:

Consider not those who are killed in the way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive with their Lord, and they will be provided for. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind [not yet martyred] that on them too no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve. They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers..

నీతి పరిధులు

Islamic Law, based upon the Quran and practices of Muhammad has set down a set of laws to be observed during the lesser Jihad.

Qur'an forbids fighting in sacred month and similarly within the boundaries of Haram. But if non-Muslims disregard these sanctities, Muslims are asked to retaliate in equal measure.[93] It is stated in Qur'an:

A sacred month for a sacred month; [similarly] other sacred things too are subject to retaliation. So if any one transgresses against you, you should also pay back in equal coins. Have fear of Allah and [keep in mind that] Allah is with those who remain within the bounds [stipulated by religion].

Observance of treaties and pacts is stressed in Qur'an. When some Muslims were still in Mecca, and they couldn't migrate to Medina, the Qur'an stated:

And to those who accepted faith but did not migrate [to Madinah], you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.

Similar reports are attributed to Muhammad:

  • Abu Sa‘id (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “On the Day of Judgment, to proclaim the traitorship of a traitor and the betrayal of a person who betrayed his words, a flag shall be hoisted which would be as high as [the extent of his] traitorship”, and [the Prophet (sws) also said]: “Remember that no traitor and betrayer of promises is greater than the one who is the leader and ruler of people”. Sahih Muslim 1738

యుద్ధాలలో ఉద్దేశ్యాలు

According to verses మూస:Quran-usc-range, the Qur'an implies two objectives:[13]

  1. Uproot fitnah (فتنة) or persecution
  2. Establish supremacy of God, through Islam, in the world

Against persecution

Directives for action against persecution and unbelief:

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do.

Also:

And what has come over you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: ‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help. [You should know that] those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.

Most Muslim scholars consider it an eternal directive and believe that all types of oppression should be considered under this directive.[13][94] Similarly, if a group of Muslims commit unwarranted aggression against some of their brothers and does not desist from it even after all attempts of reconciliation, such a group according to the Qur’an should be fought with:

And if two parties or groups among the believers start fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you against the one which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable. The believers are brothers to one another. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.

When asked what to do in the event that Muslims did not have a state, Muhammad directed Muslims to dissociate themselves from all other groups:

I asked: If there is no state or ruler of the Muslims? He replied: In this situation, dissociate yourself from all groups, even if you have to chew the roots of a tree at the time of your death. Sahih Bukhari 7084

అరేబియా ద్వీపకల్పంలో ఇస్లాం Supremacy

It is stated in Qur'an:

Indeed those who are opposing Allah and His Messenger are bound to be humiliated. The Almighty has ordained: ‘‘I and My Messengers shall always prevail’’. Indeed Allah is Mighty and Powerful.

After Itmam al-hujjah (clarification of religion to the addressees in its ultimate form), Jews were subdued first, and had been granted amnesty because of various pacts. Those among them who violated these pacts were given the punishment of denying a Messenger of God.[13] Muhammad exiled the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa to Khyber and that of Banu Nadir to Syria.[95] The power they wielded at Khyber was crushed by an attack at their strongholds.[96] Prior to this, Abu al-Rafi and Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf were put to death in their houses.[97] The tribe of Banu Qurayza was guilty of treachery and disloyalty in the battle of the Ahzab.[98] When the clouds of war dispersed and the chances of an external attack no longer remained, Muhammad laid siege around them. When no hope remained, they asked Muhammad to appoint Sa'd ibn Mua'dh as an arbitrator to decide their fate. Their request was accepted. Since, at that time, no specific punishment had been revealed in the Qur’an about the fate of the Jews, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh announced his verdict in accordance with the Torah. As per the Torah, the punishment in such situations was that all men should be put to death; the women and children should be made slaves and the wealth of the whole nation should be distributed among the conquerors.[99][100] In accordance with this verdict pronounced, all men were executed.[101] John Esposito writes that Muhammad's use of warfare in general was alien neither to Arab custom nor to that of the Hebrew prophets, as both believed that God had sanctioned battle with the enemies of the Lord.[102]

No other incident of note took place regarding the Jews until the revelation of At-Tawba, the final judgement, was declared against them:[13]

Fight those who believe not in Allah or the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and are subdued.

This directive related to both the Jews and the Christians. The punishment mentioned in these verses is a show of lenience to them because they were originally adherents to monotheism. The story holds that they did not benefit from this lenience because, after Muhammad's death, they once again resorted to fraud and treachery.[103][104][105][106] Consequently, the Jews of Khyber and the Christians of Najran were exiled once and for all from the Arabian peninsula by Umar. This exile actually fulfilled the following declaration of the Qur’an about them:[13]

And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world; and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.

When the polytheists of Arabia had been similarly subdued, it was proclaimed in At-Tawba that in future no pact would be made with them. They would be given a final respite of four months and then they would be humiliated in retribution of their deeds and would in no way be able to escape from this punishment. After this time limit, the declaration is made in the Qur’an:[13]

And a declaration should be made from Allah and His Messenger to these people on the day of the great Hajj that Allah is free from [all] obligations to these Idolaters and so is His Messenger. So if you [O Idolaters!] repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape from the grasp of Allah. And give tidings [O Muhammad (sws)] of a painful torment to these disbelievers. Except those of these Idolaters with whom you have a treaty, and who have not shown treachery in it nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to the end of their term. Indeed, Allah loves those who abide by the limits. Then when the sacred months [after the Hajj] have passed, kill these Idolaters wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. But if they repent and establish the prayer, and give Zakah, then leave them alone. Indeed, Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.

After the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Muhammad himself singled out nations by writing letters to them. In all, they were written to the heads of eight countries.[107] Consequently, after consolidating their rule in the Arabian peninsula, the Companions launched attacks against these countries giving them two options if they wanted to remain alive: to accept faith or to accept a life of subjugation by paying Jizya. None of these nations were considered to be adherents to polytheism, otherwise they would have been treated in the same way as the Idolaters of Arabia.[13]

ముస్లిం సమాజాలలో యుద్ధాలు

History records instances of the "call for jihad" being invoked by Islamic leaders to legitimate wars of conquest. The major imperial Muslim dynasties of Ottoman Turkey (Sunni) and Persia (Shia) each established systems of authority around traditional Islamic institutions. In the Ottoman empire, the concept of ghaza was promulgated as a sister obligation to jihad. The Ottoman ruler Mehmed II is said to have insisted on the conquest of Constantinople (Christian Byzantium) by justifying ghaza as a basic duty. Later Ottoman rulers would apply ghaza to justify military campaigns against the Persian Safavid dynasty. Thus both rival empires established a tradition that a ruler was only considered truly in charge when his armies had been sent into the field in the name of the true faith, usually against giaurs or heretics — often meaning each other. The 'missionary' vocation of the Muslim dynasties was prestigious enough to be officially reflected in a formal title as part of a full ruler style: the Ottoman (many also had Ghazi as part of their name) Sultan Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi, 6th Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421 - 1451), literally used Sultan ul-Mujahidin[ఆధారం కోరబడినది].

The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in western Africa were established by a series of offensive wars.[108]

The commands inculcated in the Quran (in five suras from the period after Muhammad had established his power) on Muslims to put to the sword those who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (Jizya) were not interpreted as a general injunction on all Muslims constantly to make war on the infidels (originally only polytheists who claimed to be monotheists, not "People of the Book", Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Prophet Muhammed; the word infidel had different historical uses, notably used by the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims they were fighting against). It was generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the Caliph (an office that was claimed by the Ottoman sultans), but Muslims who did not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Caliphate (which is vacant), such as non-Sunnis and non-Ottoman Muslim states, always looked to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Muslims on non-believers since the early caliphate. Some proclaimed Jihad by claiming themselves as mahdi, e.g. the Sudanese Mahommed Ahmad in 1882.

ముస్లిమేతరుల అభిప్రాయాలు

నవీన దృక్పధాలు

యునైటెడ్ స్టేట్స్ న్యాయవిభాగం తన "అడ్‌హాక్ జిహాద్ వివరణ"లో ఉగ్రవాద కార్యకలాపాలలో పాల్గొనుచున్న వ్యక్తులను విషయాలను వివరించింది:

    • "As used in this First Superseding Indictment, 'Jihad' is the Arabic word meaning 'holy war'. In this context, jihad refers to the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam."[109]
    • "As used in this Superseding Indictment, 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, maiming, kidnapping, and hostage-taking."[110] in the indictment against several individuals including José Padilla.
"పోరాటం మరియు యుద్ధం కొన్ని సార్లు అనివార్యమౌతుంది, కాని, జిహాద్ లేదా సంఘర్షణలో ఇదొక చిన్న భాగమే" ("Fighting and warfare might sometimes be necessary, but it was only a minor part of the whole jihad or struggle.")[111]
  • Maxime Rodinson, an Orientalist, wrote that "Jihad is a propagandistic device which, as need be, resorts to armed struggle – two ingredients common to many ideological movements."[112]

నేడు కొందరు అనుసరిస్తున్న జిహాద్ "ఇస్లాం" దృష్టిలో సమర్థనీయమేనా?

ఇవీ చూడండి

రాజకీయ మరియు సైనిక విషయాలు

ఇతర సంబంధ విషయాలు

జిహాద్ ధర్మ తత్వవేత్తలు

మూలాలు

  1. ఖురాన్ భావామృతం - అబుల్ ఇర్ఫాన్ , పబ్లిషర్ష్ - ఇస్లామిచ్ రీసెర్చ్ సెంటర్, హైదరాబాద్
  2. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; firestone అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  3. Esposito (2002a), p.26
  4. "BBC - Religion & Ethics - Jihad: The internal Jihad". Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  5. JOIN THE CARAVAN Imam Abdullah Azzam
  6. Mahmoud M. Ayoub, Islam: Faith and History, pp. 68-69)
  7. Al-Batal, Mahmoud; Kristen Brustad, and Abbas Al-Tonsi (2006). "6-"من رائدات الحركة النسائية العربية" (One of the Pioneers of the Arabic Feminist Movement)". Al-Kitaab fii Tacllum al-cArabiyya, Part II (in Arabic, English) (2 ed.). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-58901-096-3. "To struggle or exert oneself for a cause........جاهََدَ، يجاهِد، الجهاد" 
  8. Fazlur Rahman, Major Themes of the Qur'an, (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980), pp. 63-64.
  9. Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1996), pp. 116-17
  10. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; autogenerated5 అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 R. Peters (1977), pp.3-5
  12. Maududi. "Human Rights in Islam, Chapter Four". Retrieved 2006-01-09. 
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 Ghamidi, Javed (2001). "The Islamic Law of Jihad". Mizan. Dar ul-Ishraq.  Text " మూస:OCLC " ignored (help)
  14. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; jih అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  15. "VII.". Human Rights Watch. October 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  16. John K. Roth, Ethics, p.775
  17. see e.g. [1], [2] and [3]
  18. Asghar Ali Engineer (October 10, 2008). "Making a mockery of jihad". Asia Times. Retrieved 2008-10-10. "Recent terror attacks in India and abroad have created an impression that jihad is central to Koranic teaching. First of all, as we have asserted repeatedly, jihad does not mean war in the Koran as there are other words for it like qital and harb. Jihad has been used in the Koran in its root meaning: to strive for betterment of society, to spread goodness (maruf) and contain evil (munkar)." 
  19. Oxford English Dictionary
  20. What Does Jihad Mean? "For example, Yasir Arafat's May 1994 call in Johannesburg for a "jihad to liberate Jerusalem" was a turning point in the peace process; Israelis heard him speak about using violence to gain political ends and questioned his peaceable intentions. Both Arafat himself and his aides then clarified that he was speaking about a "peaceful jihad" for Jerusalem."
  21. Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72.
  22. Cook, David, Understanding Jihad, University of California Press, 2005, p.165-6
  23. Muhammad ibn Isma'il Bukhari, The Translation of the Meaning of Sahih al-Bukhari, trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, 8 vols. (Medina: Dar al-Fikr: 1981), 4:34-204. Quoted in Douglas Streusand, `What Does Jihad Mean?` Middle East Quarterly, September 1997.
  24. Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam, 2001 Chapter 2
  25. Muhaiyaddeen, M. R. Bawa: Islam & World Peace: Explanations of a Sufi Fellowship Press, Philadelphia 1987
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World); http://www.oxfordislamicstudies/MainSearch.html (accessed February 17, 2008)
  27. 27.0 27.1 Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003
  28. http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html
  29. William M. Watt: Muhammad at Medina, p.4; q.v. the Tafsir regarding these verses
  30. Adel Th. Khoury: Was sagt der Koran zum Heiligen Krieg?, pp.89-107
  31. William M. Watt: Muhammad at Medina, p.4; William M. Watt: Kurze Geschichte des Islam, p.81; Albrecht Noth: Früher Islam. In: Ulrich Haarmann: Geschichte der arabischen Welt, p.37; Rudi Paret: Der Koran. Kommentar und Konkordanz, 22:39
  32. 32.0 32.1 Rudi Paret: Mohammed und der Koran. Geschichte und Verkündung des arabischen Propheten, p.128
  33. Adel Th. Khoury: Was sagt der Koran zum Heiligen Krieg?, p.91
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 David Cook, Understanding Jihad; University of California Press: CA, 2005
  35. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Badr, Battle of; http://oxfordislamicstudies.com/MainSearch.html (accessed February 17, 2008)
  36. John L. Esposito, Islam, the Straight Path; Oxford University Press: New York,2005
  37. Richard P. Bonney, Jihad: From Qu'ran to Bin Laden; Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, 2004
  38. Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
  39. The Almohads
  40. 40.0 40.1 Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.
  41. The Forgotten Refugees
  42. Sephardim
  43. Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.
  44. Sarkar, Jadunath. How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam. 
  45. The Shade of Swords Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity M. J. Akbar
  46. K. S. Lal: Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India, 1973
  47. Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World, by Justin Marozzi
  48. Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)
  49. Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
  50. Sufism in the Caucasus
  51. Imam Shamil of Dagestan
  52. Tough lessons in defiant Dagestan
  53. Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?
  54. Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.
  55. Holt, P.M., The Mahdist State in Sudan, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1958, p.51
  56. US Library of Congress, A Country Study: Sudan
  57. The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca and Medina
  58. Saudi Arabia - THE SAUD FAMILY AND WAHHABI ISLAM
  59. Nibras Kazimi, A Paladin Gears Up for War, The New York Sun, November 1, 2007
  60. John R Bradley, Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope, Asia Times, March 17, 2005
  61. Amir Taheri, Death is big business in Najaf, but Iraq's future depends on who controls it, The Times, August 28, 2004
  62. Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494-1566
  63. Kinross, 187.
  64. Ottoman Dhimmitude
  65. Supply of Slaves
  66. The living legacy of jihad slavery
  67. The Middle East during World War One
  68. T. E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Jonathan Cape, London (1926) 1954 p. 49.
  69. for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H.G. Keene. Available online at [4]
  70. Afghan Constitution: 1923
  71. Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat
  72. First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak
  73. Reason to hope Canadians don't repeat history in Afghanistan, Alan G. Jamieson, The Edmonton Journal, July 31 2006
  74. "Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside". Associated Press. 2003-02-14. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  75. Tohid, Owias (2003-06-27). "Taliban regroups - on the road". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  76. Turning Out Guerrillas and Terrorists to Wage a Holy War, New York Times, March 18, 2002
  77. Rashid, Taliban (2000)
  78. Abd al Qadir, Library of Congress
  79. Algeria
  80. Centrifugal Tendencies In The Algerian Civil War, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)
  81. Haddad, Gibril (2005-02-28). "Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith" (HTML). living Islam. Retrieved August 16 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help);
  82. Haddad, Gibril. "RE: Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf" (HTML). sunnipath.com. Retrieved August 16 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help); ]
  83. Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith
  84. Jihad in the Hadith, Peace with Realism, April 16, 2006
  85. JOIN THE CARAVAN
  86. Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam, p.56
  87. Understanding Jihad, February, 2005
  88. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, The Meaning of the Qur'an (tafsir), commentary on verse 2:143.[5]
  89. This means that this group stands between Muhammad and the rest of the world who were able to observe the whole process of witnessing
  90. *‍ముస్లిం దేశాల పరిరక్షణ
  91. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. Tafhim al-Qur'an. Verse 8:66
  92. Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 450-1
  93. Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 479-80
  94. Concept of Dar Al-Islam and Dar Al-Harb, Islamonline.net.[6]
  95. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 40-2 / Ibid. vol. 3, pp. 151-160
  96. Ibid., pp. 40-2 / Ibid., pp. 151-160
  97. Ibid., pp. 43-8 / Ibn Sa‘ad, al-Tabaqatu’l-Kubra, vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1960), p. 28
  98. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 180-2
  99. Deuteronomy, 20:10-14
  100. Caesar E. Farah. Islam: Beliefs and Observances, pp.52
  101. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 188-9
  102. John Esposito(2005), Islam: The Straight Path, p.15
  103. Sahih Bukhari, 2730
  104. Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-kharaj, Fasl fi’l-Fay wa al-Khiraj, (1302 AH), p. 42
  105. Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Futuhu’l-Buldan, (Qumm: Manshurat al-Arummiyyah, 1404 AH), p. 73
  106. Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh, 1st ed., vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Beirut, 1965), p. 112
  107. The names of these heads of state are: 1. Negus of Abyssinia, 2. Maqawqas of Egypt, 3. Khusro Parvez of Persia, 4. Qaysar of Rome, 5. Mundhar Ibn Sawi of Bahrain, 6. Hudhah Ibn ‘Ali of Yamamah, 7. Harith Ibn Abi Shamr of Damascus, 8. Jayfar of Amman, see Muhammad as a diplomat
  108. http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/uniform/usman1804.htm
  109. http://www.milnet.com/2nd-indictment-hayat-dist-court.pdf
  110. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/uspad111705ind.pdf
  111. B.A. Robinson (2003-03-28). "The Concept of Jihad "Struggle" in Islam" (HTML). Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved August 16 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help);
  112. Maxime Rodinson. Muhammad. Random House, Inc., New York, 2002. p. 351.

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