నెస్టోరిని

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
Nestor
Kākā
(Nestor meridionalis)
శాస్త్రీయ వర్గీకరణ
రాజ్యం: Animalia
విభాగం: Chordata
తరగతి: Aves
క్రమం: Psittaciformes
కుటుంబం: Strigopidae
జాతి: Nestorini
జాతి: Nestor
Lesson, 1830
Species

N. notabilis
N. meridionalis
N. productus
N. spec.

The genus Nestor is the only genus of the Nestorini tribe. Together with the Kakapo in the Strigopini tribe, they form the small parrot family Strigopidae. The genus Nestor contains two extant parrot species from New Zealand and two extinct species from Norfolk Island, Australia and Chatham Island, New Zealand, respectively. All species are large stocky birds with short squarish tails. A defining characteristic of the genus is their tongue, which is tipped with a hair-like fringe.[1] The superficial resemblance of this tongue to that of lorikeets has led some taxonomists to consider the two groups closely related, but DNA evidence shows they are not.[2][3]

Classification[మార్చు]

All four species in the genus Nestor are thought to stem from a 'proto-Kākā', dwelling in the forests of New Zealand 5 million years ago.[2][4] The closest relative is the Kākāpō (Strigops habroptila).[2][4][5][6] Together, they form the parrot family Strigopidae, with comprises an ancient group that split off from all other Psittacidae before their radiation.[2][4][6]

Species[మార్చు]

There are two surviving species and at least one well documented extinct species in the genus Nestor. Very little is known about the fourth, the Chatham Island Kākā, which may have been con-specific with another Kaka species.

  • Kea, Nestor notabilis
  • Kākā, Nestor meridionalis
    • North Island Kākā, Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis
    • South Island Kākā, Nestor meridionalis meridionalis
  • Norfolk Island Kākā, Nestor productus (extinct)
  • Chatham Island Kākā, Nestor sp. (extinct)

మూస:Genus Nestor species

Status[మార్చు]

Current distribution of extant species, as well as previous distribution of extinct island species.

Of the four species, the Norfolk Island Kākā[7][8] and Chatham Island Kākā[9] went extinct in recent history. The last known individual of the Norfolk Island Kākā died in captivity in London sometime after 1851,[10] and only between seven[11] and 20[12] skins survive. The Chatham Island Kākā went extinct in pre-European times, after Polynesians arrived at the island, between 1550 and 1700, and is only known from subfossil bones.[9] The mainland Kākā is listed as endangered,[13][14] and the Kea is listed as vulnerable.[15][16]

References[మార్చు]

  1. Forshaw, Joseph M.; Cooper, William T. (1981) [1973, 1978]. Parrots of the World (corrected second edition ed.). David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London. ISBN 0-7153-7698-5. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMID 18653733. 
  3. Tokita, M; Kiyoshi T and Armstrong KN (2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony.". Evolution & Development 9: 590–601. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Grant-Mackie, E.J.; J.A. Grant-Mackie, W.M. Boon & G.K. Chambers (2003). "Evolution of New Zealand Parrots". NZ Science Teacher 103. 
  5. Juniper, Tony; Mike Parr (1998). Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300074536. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 de Kloet, R.S.; de Kloet, S.R. (2005). The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 706–721.
  7. మూస:IUCN2008 Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  8. "Norfolk Island Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  9. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  10. Greenway, James Cowan (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World (2nd ed.). New York: Dover Publications. 
  11. "Nestor productus - Norfolk Island Kaka specimen(s) in the ZMA". Nlbif.eti.uva.nl. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  12. "Naturalis - Extinct bird: Nestor productus (Norfolk Island Kaka)". Nlbif.eti.uva.nl. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  13. మూస:IUCN2008 Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  14. "Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  15. మూస:IUCN2008 Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  16. "Kea - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 

External links[మార్చు]

మూస:Strigopidae

"http://te.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=నెస్టోరిని&oldid=813316" నుండి వెలికితీశారు