మెలోప్సిట్టాసిని

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
Budgerigar
Male at Cologne Zoo, Germany
పరిరక్షణ స్థితి
శాస్త్రీయ వర్గీకరణ
రాజ్యం: Animalia
విభాగం: Chordata
తరగతి: Aves
క్రమం: Psittaciformes
కుటుంబం: Psittacidae
జాతి: Melopsittacus
Gould, 1840
ప్రజాతి: M. undulatus
ద్వినామీకరణం
Melopsittacus undulatus
(Shaw, 1805)
The budgerigar's natural habitat is coloured in red

The Budgerigar (pronounced /ˈbʌdʒəriɡɑr/) or Common Pet Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus), often called a budgie or parakeet, is a small parrot and the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus. A small long-tailed predominantly green and yellow bird with black scalloped markings on the wings and shoulders in the wild, the Budgerigar has been bred extensively with a profusion of colour forms resulting. Thus, aviary birds may be blue and white, all yellow, all white, or various other combinations thereof. Some have even been bred with small crests. In the wild, it is a predominantly seed-eating species. The budgerigar is found throughout the drier parts of Australia and has survived for the last five million years in the harsh inland conditions of that continent.[2]

The budgerigar is closely related to the lories and the fig parrots.[3][4][5][6] Although budgerigars are often, especially in American English, called Parakeets, this term refers to any of a number of small parrots with long flat tails.

Etymology[మార్చు]

Alternative common names include Shell Parrot, Warbling Grass parakeet, Canary Parrot, Zebra parrot, Flight Bird, Scallop Parrot and the alternate spellings Budgerygah and Betcherrygah.[7] Although more applicable to members of the genus Agapornis, the name Lovebird has been applied to them from their habit of mutual preening.[7]

Several possible origins for the English name budgerigar have been proposed:

The Budgerigar was first described by George Shaw in 1805, and given its current binomial name by John Gould in 1840. The genus name Melopsittacus comes from Greek and means "melodious parrot".[11] The species name undulatus is Latin for "undulated" or "wave-patterned".[12] Gould noted that the term Betcherrygah was used by indigenous people of the Liverpool plains.[13]

Evolutionary history[మార్చు]

మూస:Cladogram

Traditionally, the budgerigar was thought to be the link between the genera Neophema and Pezoporus based on the barred plumage.[14] However, recent phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences place the budgerigar very close the lories (subfamily Loriinae) and the fig parrots (tribe Cyclopsittacini).[3][4][5][6]

Anatomy and physiology[మార్చు]

The anatomy of a male budgerigar.

Budgerigars in their natural-habitats of Australia average 18 cm (7 in) long, weigh 30-40 grams, and display a light green body colour (abdomen and rumps), while their mantle (back and wing coverts) display pitch-black mantle markings (blackish in fledgelings and immatures) edged in clear yellow undulations. The forehead and face is yellow in adults but with blackish stripes down to the cere in young individuals until they change into their adult plumage around 3–4 months of age. They display small purple patches (called cheek patches) and a series of 3 black spots across each sides of their throats (called throat-spots) of which the 2 outermost throat-spots are situated at the base of each cheek-patches. The tail is cobalt (dark-blue); outside tail feathers display central yellow flashes. Their wings have greenish-black flight feathers and black coverts with yellow fringes along with central yellow flashes which only becomes visible in flight and/or when the wings are stretched. Bills are olive grey and legs blueish-grey, with zygodactyl toes.[15]

Budgerigars in their natural habitat in Australia are noticeably smaller than those in captivity. This particular parrot species has been bred in many other colours and shades in captivity (i.e. blue, grey, greygreen, pieds, violet, white, yellowblue) although they are mostly found in pet stores in blue, green and yellow. Budgerigar plumage is known to fluoresce under ultraviolet light (as most other parrot species do as well), a phenomenon possibly related to courtship and mate selection.[16]

The colour of the cere (the area containing the nostrils) differs between the sexes; royal blue in males, pale-brown to white (non-breeding) or brown (breeding) in females and pink in immatures of both sexes (usually of a more even purplish-pink colour in young males). Some female budgerigars develop brown cere only during breeding time and it later disappears. Young females can often be identified by a subtle chalky whiteness that starts around the cere nostril holes. Males that are either Albino, Lutino, Dark-eyed Clear and/or Recessive Pied (aka Danishpied aka Harlequin) always retain the immature purplish-pink cere colour their entire life.[15][17]

Budgerigar flock in the wild (SW Queensland, Australia)

It is usually easy to tell the sex of a Budgie over 6 months old, mainly by the cere colours but behaviours and head shape also help indicate Budgie's genders.

Mature males' ceres are usually light to dark blue but can be purplish to pink in some particular colour mutations (DarkEyedClears, Danishpieds aka Recessivepieds and Inos) and usually display much rounder heads. Males are typically cheerful, extraverted, highly flirtatious, most peacefully social and very vocal.

Females' ceres are pinkish as immatures and switch from being beigish or whitish outside breeding condition into brown (often with a 'crusty' texture) in breeding condition and usually display flattened back of heads (right above the nape region). Females are typically highly dominant and more socially intolerant.[18]

Vision[మార్చు]

Like many birds, budgerigars have tetrachromatic colour vision, but all four classes of cone cells operating simultaneously requires the full spectrum provided by sunlight.[19] Additionally, budgerigars have been known to see in the ultra-violet spectrum, which brightens up their feathers to attract mates. The throat-spots in budgerigars have been most notable for reflecting UVs[16] and for identifying one bird from the other.

Ecology[మార్చు]

Female Budgerigar at Alice Springs Desert Park.

Budgerigars are nomadic birds found in open habitats, primarily in Australian scrubland, open woodland and grassland. The birds are normally found in small flocks, but can form very large flocks under favourable conditions. The species is extremely nomadic and the movement of the flocks is tied to the availability of food and water.[15] Drought can drive flocks into more wooded habitat or coastal areas. They feed on the seeds of spinifex, grass weeds, and sometimes ripening wheat.[15][20]

Naturalised feral budgerigars have been recorded since the 1940s in the St. Petersburg, Florida area of the United States, but are much less common than they were in the early 1980s. Increased competition from European Starlings and House Sparrows is thought to be primary cause of the population decline.[21]

Aviculture[మార్చు]

Pet budgerigars

The budgerigar is one of only two parrot species to be genuinely domesticated along with the Peach-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).[dubious ] It is widely acknowledged as the most common pet parrot in the world and possibly the most common cage bird. The budgerigar has been bred in captivity since the 1850s. Breeders have worked over the decades to produce a wide range of colour, pattern and feather mutations, such as albino, blue, cinnamon-ino (aka lacewinged), clearwinged, crested, dark, greywinged, opaline, pieds, spangled, dilute (suffused), and violet.

'English Budgie' (left), as compared to 'wild-type' Budgerigars

Standard-type (aka English or "show") budgerigars are about twice as large as their wild-type (natural form and sized) counterparts. Their overall larger sizes and puffy head feathers give them boldly exaggerated looks. The eyes and beak can be almost totally obscured by their fluffed head's and forehead's feathers. English budgerigars are typically higher in price than wild-type birds and typically have a shorter life span of 7–9 years. Breeders of English Budgerigars will often exhibit their birds at animal shows. Most captive budgerigars in the pet trade are similar in size and body conformation to wild occurring budgerigars and thus aptly called wild-type budgerigars.

Budgerigars are intelligent and social animals and enjoy the stimulation of toys and interaction with humans as well as with other budgerigars. A common behavior is the chewing of material such as wood, especially for female budgerigars. When a budgerigar feels threatened they will try to perch as high as possible from the ground and may make themselves appear thin by bringing their feathers close to their body.

Tame budgerigars can be taught to speak, whistle tunes, and play with humans. Both males and females sing and can learn to mimic sounds and words and do simple tricks. Both singing and mimicry are more pronounced and much more perfected in males. As a whole, females rarely if ever learn to mimic more than a dozen words or so. Males can very easily acquire vocabularies ranging between a few dozen to a hundred words. Generally speaking, it is mostly pet budgerigars (and even more so lone pets) and thus, receiving the most attention which talk the best and the most.

A flock of budgerigars in an aviary

In captivity, budgerigars live an average of five to eight years, but are reported to occasionally live to 15-20 if well cared for.[22] The life span depends on each particular budgerigar's breed (show budgerigars typically do not live as long as wild-type budgerigars), lineage and overall health, which is highly influenced by exercise and diet.

Budgerigars (as do most other parrot species) and most particularly females enjoy chewing on anything they can find in their cages and environments. This comes from the females' instinct in adapting by gnawing the all around interior of existing wild bird's nests. Mineral-blocks (ideally enriched with iodine) and cuttlebone and soft wooden pieces must be provided to help them satisfy their desire to chew and keep their beaks trimmed.

Bird lovers often comment on the differences in personality in each individual bird. Budgerigars each have their own unique ideas about how much they like to be handled, which toys are their favorites, and even what music they like or are indifferent to.

Budgerigars have been shown to cause "bird fancier's lung" in sensitive people, a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.[23] This is primarily an issue with people keeping large numbers of budgerigars within a bird room.

Cage requirements[మార్చు]

Budgerigars are small but are very active, energetic, and lively birds. The absolute minimum size cage for one or two tame pet budgerigars that are allowed out for several hours a day is 18 inches (46 cm) long by 18 inches wide[citation needed]. However, larger cages and flights will be appreciated by these energetic little birds. An ideal cage is longer than high (since birds fly horizontally like planes and not vertically like helicopters) and would be at least 30 inches (76 cm) long.[citation needed] The cage should not have bar spacing greater than 1/2 inch between bars. Budgerigars are not particularly destructive birds, and spacious cages, while not always easy to find, are usually not overly expensive.

Care should be taken when placing several female budgerigars together, as they can do serious harm to one another if they do not get along.

Diet[మార్చు]

మూస:Howto

Food variety sold for parakeets. Millet is the primary ingredient in budgerigar pet mix.
Pet budgerigars eating fruit

Although budgerigars in their natural-habitats of Australia eat mainly grass seeds, captive budgerigars feed on either dry, sprouted and/or soaked seeds. A diet of only dry seeds is inadequate for budgerigars and/or any parrot species' optimum health. Avian veterinarians recommend pet birds' diets be supplemented with foods such as:

  • Whole Cereals and whole Grains : Amaranth, Barley, Couscous, Flax, whole-grain Pastas, Oat, Quinoa (truly a Fruit but used as a Cereal), whole-Wheat, Wild-Rice, whole Rices.
  • Edible Blossoms and Flowers: Carnations, Chamomille, Chives, Dandelion, Day Lilies, Eucalyptus, Fruit tree's blossoms, Herbs' blossoms, Hibiscus, Honeysuckle, Impatiens, Lilac, Nasturiums, Pansies, Passion Flower (Passiflora), Roses, Sunflowers, Tulips, Violets. Note that the leaves of some of these plants are poisonous to budgies.
  • Greens and/or Weeds:
    • mainly ; Bok-Choi, Broccoli and/or Cauliflower leaves, Cabbage leaves, Collard greens, Dandelion leaves, Kelp, Mustard leaves, Seaweeds, Spirulina, Water cress.
    • occasionally and sporadically ; Amaranth leaves, Beet leaves, Carambola (Starfruit), Chards, Parsley, Spinach and Turnip leaves. All of these feature high Oxalic-Acid contents that induces production of Calcium Oxalates (crystals/stones) by binding Calcium and other trace Minerals present in foods and goods with which they're ingested. Possibly, leading to Calcium deficiencies and/or Hypocalcemia in minor cases. Liver's &/or other internal organs' damage or failure in more severe cases.
  • Fruit (except Avocados which are toxic): all Apple varieties, Banana, all Berries varieties, all Citrus varieties, Grapes, Kiwi, Mango, Melons, Nectarine, Papaya, Peach, all Pear varieties, Plum, Star-fruit. Pits and seeds from every Citrus and Drupe species must always be discarded as they are intoxicating. However, achenes and tiny seeds from pseudo and true Berries (Bananas, Blueberries, Elderberries, Eggplants, Persimmons, Pomegranates, Raspberries, Strawberries, Tomatoes) are all okay.
  • Legumes: Almonds, Beans, Lentils, Peas, Nuts and Tofu.
  • Grain and/or Legume sprouts: Adzuki beans, Alfalfa beans, Buckwheat, Lentils, Mungo beans, Pinto beans, Red Kidney beans, Sesame seeds, Sunflower seeds. Caution with only Lima and Navy beans' sprouts which are toxic.
  • Vegetables (except Uncooked Potatoes, Uncooked Onions and all Mushrooms): Beet, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Carrots, Cucumber, all Cabbage varieties, fresh Beans, fresh Romane Lettuce, fresh Peas, Parsnip, all Pepper varieties, all Squash varieties, Sweet potatoes, Tomato, Turnip, Yams, Zucchini.
  • Pellets specifically formulated for budgerigars, for Australian grass budgerigars and/or for small parrots are all healthy additions.
  • Other fat-free, healthy and nutritious human foods.

Adding these foods provides additional nutrients and can prevent obesity and lipomas, as can substituting millet, which is relatively low in fat, for higher-fat seed mixes. Adult budgerigars often do not always adapt readily to dietary additions, so care must be taken to introduce healthy diets as young as possible (ideally weaned onto fresh foods before introducing chicks onto seeds). Parrots and budgerigars learn mainly by mimicry and thus most adult budgerigars will be easily encouraged to try new foods by observing another bird eating the food, or by placing the new food on a mirror.

Parrot species (including budgerigars) are herbivores. Consequently, they should be fed plant-based diets that are ideally supplemented with vegetable proteins, for example, produced by a combination of any type of whole grain with any type of legume. Eggs (hard-boiled and/or scrambled) are the only appropriately healthy source of animal protein, mostly for birds in either breeding, growing, moulting and/or recovering conditions. High levels of proteins (particularly animal proteins) are unhealthy for budgerigars and other Grass Parakeet species living under any alternate conditions (i.e. non-breeding, pets).

Alcohol, avocado, chocolate, caffeine, products containing lactose, garlic and onions present a danger of toxicosis and should not be fed.[24]

Breeding[మార్చు]

Head detail of a male Budgerigar.

Breeding in the wild generally takes place between June and September in northern Australia and between August and January in the south, although budgerigars are opportunistic breeders and respond to rains when grass seeds become most abundant.[15] Budgerigars show signs of affection to their flockmates by preening or feeding one another. Budgerigars feed one another by eating the seeds themselves, and then regurgitating it into their flockmates' mouth. Populations in some areas have increased as a result of increased water availability at farms. Nests are made in holes in trees, fence posts, or even logs lying on the ground; the 4-6 eggs are incubated for 18–21 days, with the young fledging about 30 days after hatching.[15][20]

In the wild, virtually all parrot species require a hollow tree or a hollow log as a nest site. Because of this natural behavior, budgerigars most easily breed in captivity when provided with a nest box. The eggs are typically 1 to 2 centimetres long and are plain white without any coloration. Female budgerigars can lay eggs without a male partner but these eggs are unfertilized and will not hatch. When the female is laying eggs her cere turns a crusty brown color. A female budgerigar will lay her eggs on alternate days.[25] After the first one, there is usually a two-day gap until the next. She will usually lay between four to eight eggs, which she will incubate (usually starting after laying her 2nd or 3rd) for about 21 days each.[25] Female Budgerigar only leave their nests for very quick defecations and stretches once they've begun incubating and are by then almost exclusively fed by their mate (usually at the nest's entrance).[25] Depending on the clutch size and the beginning of incubation, the age difference between the first and last hatchling can be anywhere from 9 to 16 days.

Breeding problems[మార్చు]

Female Budgerigar, nominate colouring

Breeding difficulties arise for various reasons. Some chicks may die from diseases and attacks from adults. Other budgerigars (virtually always females) may fight over the nest box, attacking each other or a brood. Sometimes budgerigars (mainly males) are not interested in the opposite gender, and will not reproduce with them. Sometimes a flock setting—several pairs housed where they can see and hear each other—is necessary to stimulate breeding. Another problem may be the birds' beak being under lapped. This is where the lower mandible is above the upper mandible.

It is very important to realize that most health issues and physical abnormalities in budgerigars are genetic. Care should be taken that birds used for breeding are active, healthy, and unrelated. Budgerigars that are related or who have fatty tumours or other potentially genetic health problems should not be allowed to breed. Parasites (lice, mites, worms) and pathogens (bacteria, fungi and viruses), are contagious and thus transmitted between individuals through either direct or indirect contact. Nestboxes should be cleaned between uses.

Splay leg, a relatively common problem in baby budgerigars – in which one of the budgerigar's legs is bent outward, preventing it from being able to stand properly and compete with the other chicks for food and can also lead to difficulties in reproducing in adulthood, results from young budgerigars slipping repeatedly on the floor of a nestbox. It is easily avoided by placing a small quantity of a safe bedding or wood shavings in the bottom of the nestbox. Alternatively, several pieces of paper may be placed in the box for the female to chew into bedding.

Development[మార్చు]

A baby chick 11 days old. (more)
Juvenile Budgerigars

The eggs will take about 18–20 days before they start hatching. The hatchlings are altricial – blind, naked, totally helpless, and their mother feeds them and keeps them warm around the clock day and night. Around 10 days of age, the chicks' eyes will open, and they will start to develop feather down. The appearance of down occurs precisely at the ages (around 9 or 10 days of age) for closed banding of the chicks. Budgerigar's closed band rings must be neither larger or smaller than 4.0 to 4.2 mm.

They develop feathers around 3 weeks of age. (One can often easily note the colour mutation of the individual birds at this point.) At this stage of the chicks' development, the male usually has begun to enter the nest to help his female in caring and feeding the chicks. Some budgerigar females, however, totally forbid the male from entering the nest and thus take the full responsibility of rearing the chicks until they fledge.

Depending on the size of the clutch and most particularly in the case of single mothers, it may then be wise to transfer a portion of the hatchlings (or best of the fertile eggs) to another pair. The foster pair must already be in breeding mode and thus either at the laying or incubating stages and/or rearing hatchlings.

As the chicks develop and grow feathers, they are able to be left on their own for longer and longer periods of time. By the fifth week, the chicks are strong enough that both parents will be comfortable in staying more and more out of the nest. The youngsters will stretch their wings to gain strength before they attempt to fly. They will also help defend the box from enemies mostly with their loud screeching. Young budgerigars typically fledge (leave the nest) around their fifth week of age and are usually completely weaned a week later. However, the age for fledging as well as weaning can vary slightly depending on whether it is the oldest, the youngest and/or the only surviving chick. Generally speaking, the oldest chick is the first to be weaned. But even though it is logically the last one to be weaned, the youngest chick is often weaned at a younger age than its older sibling(s). This can be a result of mimicking the actions of older siblings. Lone surviving chicks are often weaned at the youngest possible age as a result of having their parent's full attention and care.

Hand-reared Budgies may take slightly longer to wean than parent-raised chicks. Hand feeding is not routinely done with budgerigars, due to their small size, and the fact that young parent raised birds can be readily tamed.

Colour mutations[మార్చు]

దస్త్రం:Blue Parakeets.jpg
Adult females (top) display beige to brown ceres while adult males (bottom) typically have blue ceres or purplish-pink in Albinistic and recessive-pied varieties.

All captive budgerigars are divided into two basic series of colours; namely, white-based (i.e. blue, grey & white budgerigars) and/or yellow-based (i.e. green, greygreen & yellow budgerigars). There are presently at least 32 primary mutations in the budgerigar, enabling hundreds of possible secondary mutations (stable combined primary mutations) and colour varieties (unstable combined mutations).

Human speech[మార్చు]

Male specimens of budgerigars are considered one of the top five talking champions amongst parrot species, alongside the African Grey Parrot, the Amazon parrot species, the Eclectus Parrot and the Ring-necked Parakeet.[citation needed]

A budgerigar named Puck holds the world record for the largest vocabulary of any bird, at 1,728 words. Puck, a male budgerigar owned by American Camille Jordan, died in 1994, with the record first appearing in the 1995 edition of Guinness World Records.[26][27]

In 2001, recordings of a budgerigar called Victor got some attention from the media. Victor's owner, Ryan B. Reynolds of Canada, states that Victor was able to engage in contextual conversation and predict the future.[28][29]

Though some believe the animal was able to predict his own death as was claimed,[30] further study on the subject is difficult without the bird. The recordings still remain to be proven or disproven by scientific analysis.[31] Critics argue that Victor's speech in the recordings is not coherent enough to be determined as spoken in context.[32]

See also[మార్చు]

References[మార్చు]

Notes[మార్చు]

  1. మూస:IUCN2006 Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. "Dr. Marshall's Philosophy on Breeding Exhibition Budgerigars". Bird Health. 2004. Retrieved 2007-01-19. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wright, TF; Schirtzinger EE, Matsumoto T, Eberhard JR, Graves GR, Sanchez JJ, Capelli S, Mueller H, Scharpegge J, Chambers GK and Fleischer RC (2008). "A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan origin during the Cretaceous.". Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tokita, M; Kiyoshi T and Armstrong KN (2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony.". Evolution & Development 9: 590–601. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes.". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36 (3): 706–721. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O, Güntert M and Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. online: 984. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lendon, Alan H. (1973). Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary (2nd. ed). Sydney: Angus and Robertson. pp. 302–07. ISBN 0-207-12424-8. 
  8. A Reference Dictionary of Gamilaraay
  9. Delbridge, Arthur (1991). The Macquarie Dictionary (2 ed.). Sydney: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. p. 2049. ISBN 0-949757-63-2. 
  10. Online etymology dictionary
  11. Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  12. Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  13. "Indigenous Bird Names of the Hunter Region of New South Wales". Australian Museum website. Sydney, New South Wales: Australian Museum. 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
  14. Forshaw, p. 273
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Forshaw, Joseph Michael; William T. Cooper (1973 & 1981). Parrots of the World (1st and 2nd ed.). ISBN 0-87666-959-3. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 S M Pearn, A T Bennett, and I C Cuthill (2001). "Ultraviolet vision, fluorescence and mate choice in a parrot, the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus.". Retrieved 7 May 2007.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help)
  17. "Birds Online — How to tell the sex of a budgie". Retrieved 25 April 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help)
  18. "Talk Budgies FAQ". Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  19. Color Vision of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): Hue Matches, Tetrachromacy, and Intensity Discrimination.
    Timothy H. Goldsmith and Byron K. Butler in Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 191, No. 10, pages 933–951; October 2005.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "The Wild Budgerigar" (article). Retrieved 25 April 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help)
  21. Pranty 2001
  22. "Birds Online — Life span of a budgie". Retrieved 26 December 2005.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help)
  23. PMID 566603.
  24. Margaret A. Wissman, D.V.M., D.A.B.V.P. "Medical Conditions and Diseases of the Budgerigar and Cockatiel" (article). ExoticPetVet.Net. Retrieved 26 April 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 "Talk Budgies — Breeding". Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  26. Claire Folkard (ed.) (ed.). Guinness World Records 2004. Guinness World Records Limited. p. 54. ISBN 085112-180-2. 
  27. "The Bird with the Largest Vocabulary in the World". Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  28. "Budgie Research". Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  29. "Parakeets". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  30. "Talking Budgie Predicts His Own Death". Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  31. "Parakeets — info and games". Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  32. "Victor the Talking Budgie". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 

Cited texts[మార్చు]

  • Pranty, B. 2001. The Budgerigar in Florida: Rise and fall of an exotic psittacid. North American Birds 55: 389-397.
  • Forshaw, Joseph M. & Cooper, William T. (1978): Parrots of the World (2nd ed). Landsdowne Editions, Melbourne Australia ISBN 0-7018-0690-7
  • Collar, N. J. (1997). Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Pg. 384 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. (1997).
    Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9

External links[మార్చు]

మూస:Budgerigar mutations