లుధియానా

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
లుధియానా జిల్లా
ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ
జిల్లా
District map of East Punjab
Districts of Punjab, India
Punjab
లుధియానా జిల్లా
Location of the district headquarters in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883°N 75.850°E / 30.883; 75.850Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883°N 75.850°E / 30.883; 75.850
Country  India
State Punjab
Headquarters Ludhiana
Area
 • జిల్లా 3,767
జనాభా (2011)‡[›]
 • మొత్తం 34,87,882
 • జనసాంద్రత 975
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
టైమ్‌జోన్ IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 0161
Sex ratio 1000/869 /
Literacy 82.50%
Lok Sabha constituency 1
Vidhan Sabha constituency 14
వెబ్‌సైటు www.ludhiana.nic.in
^ ‡: Population increase (2001–2011): 15%

Ludhiana district is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India. Ludhiana city which is district headquarters is the hub of industry in Punjab.[citation needed]మూస:Original research? The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery. Ludhiana is the biggest city of the state. It has eight tehsils, seven sub-tehsils and twelve development blocks.[1]

As of 2011 census, the district population constituted 12.59 percent of the total Punjab population.[2]

History[మార్చు]

Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the Sarkar of Sirhind. In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot. By the early eighteenth century they had become semi independent of the Mughals. The villages In Ludhiana district remained independent, and under the rule of local powerful village Sikh Chieftains, from 1707-1835. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna, although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah — his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.[3] Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD, Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1688 AD were founded by the Rai family of Raikot. Ref-Ludhiana Dist. Gazetteer 1888-89&1904. Chiefs of Punjab 1890,1909 & 1940

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.

According to the 1901 census, Hindus numbered 269,076, or 40 per cent of the total; Muslims, 235,937, or 35 per cent; and Sikhs, 164,919, or 24 per cent.[4] In 1947 due to violence and strife between the communities, the most of the Muslim population left for Pakistan.[5]

Sikh Chieftains of 1860, who held great Influence and local power[మార్చు]

  • Sardar Bhagwant Singh of Bhadaur village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl Descendents)
  • Sardar Badan Singh of Malaudh village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl Descendents)
  • Sardar Bhai Arjan Singh of Bagrian village, Ramgarhia Sikh
  • Sardar Bahadur Sardar Raghbir Singh of Ladhran village, Guron Jatt

Satguru Ram Singh ji BhainiSahib disst LUDHIANA ramgarhia Sikh

  • Sardar Ganda Singh of Dhiru Mazra village, Jatt
  • Sardar Harnam Singh of Bhari village, Bhangu Jatt (Descendant of Bhai Mehtab Singh (d. 1740), a Sikh Warrior and Martyr, who belonged to the village Mirankot, In Amritsar District (Majha region) of Punjab, later his son Sardar Rai Singh Bhangu, who In 1764, with a large Sikh force, crossed the Sutlej river and captured present day Bhari village (Ludhiana District), and established his headquarters there, and his son was the famous Sikh Historian Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangu (d. 1846), Ancestors of the Bhari Chieftains.)

Location[మార్చు]

Ludhiana is one of the centrally located cities of Punjab, which is located on the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Amritsar at latitude 30.55 North & longitude 75.54 East in the state of Punjab in Northern India.

Ludhiana is the most centrally located district which falls in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'. It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river also forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Barnala, Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.[1]

Topography[మార్చు]

The topography of the district is typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers of the district.

The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.

Climate[మార్చు]

The climate of the district is characterized by dryness except a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as post-monsoon or transitional period. June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during summer season. December and January are the coldest months.

Climate data for Ludhiana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr మే Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Source: [6]

Rainfall[మార్చు]

The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months of the year.

Rivers and drains[మార్చు]

The Sutlej and its tributary, the Buddha Nala, constitute the chief hydrographic features of the district. A brief description of these is as follows.

Sutlej River
originates from Mansarovar Lake in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
Buddha Nala
It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are situated to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.

2001 లో గణాంకాలు[మార్చు]

విషయాలు వివరణలు
జిల్లా జనసంఖ్య . 3,487,882,[2]
ఇది దాదాపు. పనామా దేశ జనసంఖ్యకు సమానం.[7]
అమెరికాలోని. కనెక్టికట్ నగర జనసంఖ్యకు సమం..[8]
640 భారతదేశ జిల్లాలలో. 87 వ స్థానంలో ఉంది..[2]
1చ.కి.మీ జనసాంద్రత. 975 [2]
2001-11 కుటుంబనియంత్రణ శాతం. 15% [2]
స్త్రీ పురుష నిష్పత్తి.
జాతియ సరాసరి (928) కంటే.
అక్షరాశ్యత శాతం. 82.5 75%.[2]
జాతియ సరాసరి (72%) కంటే.

ఆసక్తి ఉన్న ప్రాంతాలు[మార్చు]

  • మంజీ సాహిబ్ ( ఆలంగీర్)
  • భైని సాహిబ్
  • చాపర్ మేళా (చాపర్)
  • డోరహ
  • ఘుడాని కలాన్
  • హథూర్
  • జగ్రయన్
  • గురుసర్ సాహిబ్ ( కటన సాహిబ్)
  • లుధియానా
  • ఖన్నా
  • కిలా రాయ్పూర్
  • మచ్చివర
  • నానక్సర్
  • పాయల్ (భారతదేశం)
  • సేరి లషరి ఖాన్
  • సుధార్
  • సునెత్

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Administrative Set-Up". District official website. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ July 19, 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Ludhiana : Census 2011". Indian census 2011. Census2011. November 30, 2011. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ July 19, 2012. 
  3. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 200.
  4. Ludhiāna District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 202
  5. Violence, Displacement and the Issue of Identity — 1947
  6. "Average Weather for Ludhiana - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ February 25, 2008. 
  7. US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2011-10-01. "Panama 3,460,462 July 2011 est." 
  8. "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2011-09-30. "Connecticut 3,574,097" 

వెలుపలి లింకులు[మార్చు]

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