స్ట్రిగోపిడాయె

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
స్ట్రిగోపిడాయె
Kākā, North Island subspecies
(Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis)
at Auckland Zoo, New Zealand
శాస్త్రీయ వర్గీకరణ
రాజ్యం: Animalia
విభాగం: Chordata
తరగతి: Aves
క్రమం: Psittaciformes
కుటుంబం: Strigopidae
Bonaparte, 1849
Tribes

Nestorini
Strigopini

The New Zealand parrot family (Strigopidae)[1] consists of two genera of parrots, Nestor and Strigops.[2] The genus Nestor consists of the Kea, Kākā, Norfolk Island Kākā and Chatham Island Kākā,[3][4] while the genus Strigops contains the iconic Kākāpō.[3] All extant species are endemic to New Zealand while two extinct species were found at the nearby oceanic islands like Chatham Island of New Zealand, and Norfolk Island and Phillip Island of Australia. The modern common species names, Kea, Kākā and Kākāpō, are the same as the original Māori names.[5]

The Norfolk Island Kākā and the Chatham Island Kākā have become extinct in recent times,[4][6] and the Kākāpō, Kea, and the two subspecies of the Kākā, are all threatened.[7][8][9] Human activity caused the two extinctions and the decline of the other three species. Settlers introduced invasive species, such as pigs and possums, which eat the eggs of ground nesting birds, and additional declines have been caused by hunting for food, killing as agricultural pests, habitat loss, and introduced wasps.[10][11][12]

The family diverged from the other parrots around 82 million years ago when New Zealand broke off from Gondwana, while the ancestors of the genera Nestor and Strigops diverged from each other between 60 and 80 million years ago.[13][14]

Systematics[మార్చు]

No consensus existed regarding the taxonomy of Psittaciformes until recently. Consequently, the placement of the Strigopidae species has been variable.[15] This family is one of three families in the order Psittaciformes; the other two families are Cacatuidae (Cockatoos) and Psittacidae (true parrots).[2] The family is subdivided in two tribes, Nestorini and Strigopini, each with a single genus, Nestor and Strigops, respectively. Traditionally, the species of the family Strigopidae were placed in the family Psittacidae, but several studies confirmed the unique placement of this group at the base of the parrot tree.[13][16][17] Most authors now recognize this group as its own family,[2][18] while others argue that the two tribes in this family should be recognized as two separate families: Nestoridae and Strigopidae.[19]

Phylogeography[మార్చు]

Nestoridae phylogeography.svg

A hypothesis for the phylogeography of this group has been proposed and this provides a nice example of various speciation mechanisms at work. In this scenario, ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining parrots when New Zealand broke away from Gondwana about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the two groups.[13][14] This mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Over time, ancestors of the two surviving genera, Nestor and Strigops, adapted to different ecological niches. This led to reproductive isolation, and example of ecological speciation.[14] In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, the formation of the Southern Alps diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus Nestor. Around three million years ago, two lineages adapted to high altitude and low altitude, respectively. The high altitude lineage gave rise to the modern Kea, while the low altitude lineage gave rise to the various Kākā species.[14] Island species diverge rapidly from mainland species once a few vagrants arrive at a suitable island. Both the Norfolk Island Kākā as well as the Chatham Island Kākā are the result of migration of a limited number of individuals to islands and subsequent adaptation to the habitat of those islands.[14] The lack of DNA material for the Chatham Island Kākā makes it difficult to establish precisely when those speciation events occurred. Finally, in recent times, the Kākā populations at the North Island and South Island became isolated from each other due to the rise in sea levels when the continental glaciers melted at the end of the Pleistocene.[14]

Until modern times New Zealand and the surrounding Islands were not inhabited by four-legged mammals, an environment that enabled some birds to adapt to make nests on the ground and others to become flightless.

The parakeet species belonging to the genus Cyanoramphus (kākārikis) belong to the true parrot family Psittacidae and are closely related to the endemic genus Eunymphicus from New Caledonia. They reached New Zealand between 450,000 and 625,000 years ago from mainland Australia by way of New Caledonia.[20]

Species[మార్చు]

Nestorini[మార్చు]

There are two surviving species and at least one well documented extinct species of the Nestorini tribe. Very little is known about the Chatham Island Kākā.

మూస:Genus Nestor species

Strigopini[మార్చు]

The Kākāpō is the only member of the Strigopini tribe. మూస:Genus Strigops species

Common names[మార్చు]

Current distribution of extant species, as well as previous distribution of extinct island species.[21]

All common names for species in this family are the same as the traditional Māori names.[5] The word (ā is pronounced as long aa) means 'to screech', and duplicated, as Kākā, it becomes parrot.[22][23] Kākāpō is a logical extension of that name as means night, resulting in Kākā of night or Night parrot, reflecting the species' nocturnal behaviour.[24] The etymology of Kea in Māori is less clear, and might be onomatopoeic of its call kee-aah.[3][25] In the anglicized versions of the names, the long versions of the vowels with diacritic marks , ā and ō, are replaced by a or o. In the Māori language, this changes the meaning of Kākā from parrot to dress or clothing.[26][27]

Ecology[మార్చు]

Kea are well adapted to life in the alpine zone, like these in the Southern Alps. The highest mountain in New Zealand, Aoraki/Mount Cook, is in the background

The isolated location of New Zealand has made it difficult for mammals to reach the island. This is reflected in the absence of land mammals other than bats. The main predators were birds: eagles (Eyles' Harrier, Kāhu and Haast's Eagle ), falcons (Kārearea) and owls (Whēkau and Ruru). Many of the adaptations found in the avifauna reflect the unique context in which they evolved. This unique balance was disrupted with the arrival of the Polynesians, who introduced the Polynesian rat and the Kurī (Polynesian dog) to the island. Later

  1. Nestoridae and Strigopidae are described in the same article, Bonaparte, C.L. (1949) Conspectus Systematis Ornithologiae. Therefore, under rules of the ICZN, the first reviser determines priority, which is Bonaparte, C.L. (1850), Conspectus Generum Avium, E.J. Brill, Leyden.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Christidis L, Boles WE (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. పేజీ. 200. ISBN 9780643065116. 
  3. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; forshaw అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  4. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Maori Bird Names". Kiwi Conservation Club. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2008-12-31. 
  6. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; IUCN-Norfolk-Kaka అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  7. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; IUCN-Kakapo అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  8. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; IUCN-Kaka అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  9. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; IUCN-Kea అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  10. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; DOC-Kakapo అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  11. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; DOC-Kaka అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  12. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; DOC-Kea అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMID 18653733. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Grant-Mackie, E.J.; J.A. Grant-Mackie, W.M. Boon & G.K. Chambers (2003). "Evolution of New Zealand Parrots". NZ Science Teacher 103. 
  15. For a discussion about older taxonomic positions, see Sibley, Charles Gald; Jon E. Ahlquist (1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. Yale University Press.  For more recent taxonomies, see Christides.
  16. Tokita, M; Kiyoshi T and Armstrong KN (2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony". Evolution & Development 9: 590–601. 
  17. de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 706–721. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. 
  18. Livezey, B. C.; R. L. Zusi (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy: II. – Analysis and discussion". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149: 1–94. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. 
  19. Homberger, DG (2006). "Classification and the status of wild populations of parrots". In Luescher AU. Manual of parrot behavior. Ames (IA): Blackwell Publishing. పేజీలు. 3–11. ISBN 978-0813827490. 
  20. Boon, W. M.; Kearvell, J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K. (2001). "Molecular systematics and conservation of kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.)". Science for Conservation 176. 
  21. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; Juniper-Parr అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  22. "kaka". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2008-12-31. 
  23. "Commonly used words from the Maori Language - Te Reo". Maori of New Zealand. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2008-12-31. 
  24. "kakapo". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2008-12-31. 
  25. "kea". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2008-12-31. 
  26. "The Māori Language - Ko Te Reo". సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2009-01-01. 
  27. "Māori dictionary". సంగ్రహించిన తేదీ 2009-01-02.