"బెలారస్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

Jump to navigation Jump to search
<ref name="Zaprudnik 1993 4-5">{{Harvnb|Zaprudnik|1993|pp=4–5}}</ref>అదేవిధంగా బెలారస్ లేదా బైలోరసియన్ అనే పదం బెలలెయన్ ఇంగ్లీష్లో భర్తీ చేయబడింది. బెలరూస్కీ అసలు రష్యన్ పదం బెలరారస్కీకి సమీపంలో ఉంది. <ref name="Zaprudnik 1993 4-5"/> స్టాలిన్ శకంలో బెలారసియన్ మేధావులు బైలొరెసియా పేరును రష్యాతో ఉన్న సంబంధం కారణంగా క్రివియాగా మార్చారు. <ref>{{Harvnb|Treadgold|Ellison|1999|p=230}}</ref> కొంతమంది జాతీయవాదులు అదే కారణాల వలన పేరును ఆక్షేపించారు.
<ref>{{cite web |url=http://euroradio.fm/en/swedish-government-urged-change-belarus-official-name |title=Swedish government urged to change Belarus' official name |accessdate=2 February 2010|date=13 July 2009 |work=European Radio for Belarus }}</ref><ref name="levy">{{Harvnb|Levy|Spilling|2009|p=95}}</ref> అనేక స్థానిక వార్తాపత్రికలు వారి పేర్లలో రష్యన్ భాష పాత పేరును ఉంచాయి. ఉదాహరణకి ప్రముఖ రష్యన్ వార్తాపత్రిక ప్రాంతీయ ప్రచురణ అయిన కోమ్సోమోల్స్కాయా ప్రావ్ద్ బై బైలోరుస్సీ. అంతేకాకుండా బెలారస్ను రష్యాతో తిరిగి కలిపించాలని కోరుకునే వారు బెలోరస్సియాని ఉపయోగించుకుంటున్నారు.<ref name="levy"/> అధికారికంగా దేశం పూర్తి పేరు "రిపబ్లిక్ ఆఫ్ బెలారస్" (రిపబ్లికా బెలారస్) <ref name="bynamelaw"/><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html |title=Belarus&nbsp;– Government |accessdate=22 December 2007 |date=13 December 2007 |work=[[The World Factbook]] |publisher=[[Central Intelligence Agency]] |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071211220928/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html |archivedate=11 December 2007 |deadurl=no }}</ref>
==చరిత్ర ==
{{Main article|History of Belarus}}
===ఆరంభకాల చరిత్ర ===
===Early history===
From 5000 to 2000 BC, [[Bandkeramik]] cultures predominated. In addition, remains from the [[Dnieper-Donets culture]] were found in Belarus and parts of [[Ukraine]].<ref>{{cite book|last1=Shaw|first1=Ian|last2=Jameson|first2=Robert|title=A Dictionary of Archaeology|publisher=Wiley|year=2008|pages=203–04|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8HKDtlPuM2oC&pg=PA203|isbn=978-0-470-75196-1}}</ref> [[Cimmerians]] and other pastoralists roamed through the area by 1,000 BC, and by 500 AD, Slavs had taken up residence, which was circumscribed by the [[Scythians]] who roamed its outskirts. Invaders from Asia, among whom were the [[Huns]] and [[Avars (Carpathians)|Avars]], swept through c. 400–600 AD, but were unable to dislodge the Slavic presence.<ref>John Haywood, ''Historical Atlas, Ancient and Classical World'' (1998).<!-- ISSN/ISBN needed--></ref>
[[File:Principalities of Kievan Rus' (1054-1132).jpg|thumb|Principalities of Kievan Rus'|334x334px]]
===కెవిన్ రుస్ ===
===Kievan Rus'===
{{Further information|Kievan Rus'|Principality of Polotsk|Grand Duchy of Lithuania}}
In the 9th century some principalities arose on the territory of modern Belarus. Among them was the Principality of Polatsk that for most of the time was effectively an independent State (apart from about 20 years when it was a Vassal of Kievan Rus'). The Principality of Polatsk was the first nation state to be established on the land of Belarus.
The [[Grand Duchy of Moscow|Muscovites]], led by [[Ivan III of Russia|Ivan III of Moscow]], began military campaigns in 1486 in an attempt to incorporate the lands of Kievan Rus', specifically the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/197/Nowak.html|title=The Russo-Polish Historical Confrontation|accessdate=22 December 2007|last=Nowak|first=Andrzej|date=1 January 1997|work=Sarmatian Review&nbsp;XVII|publisher=[[Rice University]]|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071218110551/http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/197/Nowak.html|archivedate=18 December 2007|deadurl=no}}</ref>
===పోలిష్ - కామంవెల్త్ ===
===Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth===
{{Further information|Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth}}
On 2 February 1386, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the [[Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)|Kingdom of Poland]] were joined in a [[personal union]] through a [[Union of Krewo|marriage of their rulers]].<ref>{{cite book|editor-last=Jones|editor-first=Michael|last=Rowell|first=S.C.|contribution=Baltic Europe|title=The New Cambridge Medieval History (Vol. 6)|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2005|page=710|isbn=0-521-36290-3}}</ref> This union set in motion the developments that eventually resulted in the formation of the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]], created in 1569 by the [[Union of Lublin]].
Under Polish−Lithuanian rule, power was held by local [[szlachta]] (''nobility''), often of Polish or Lithuanian (Polonized) descent. Trade and commerce was mostly undertaken primarily by Jews{{fact|date=December 2017}}, who formed a significant part of the urban population, along with Poles who filled in administrative and government positions.
===రష్యన్ సాంరాజ్యం ===
===Russian Empire===
{{Further information|Belarusian history in the Russian Empire}}
The union between Poland and Lithuania ended in 1795 with the [[partitions of Poland|partitioning of Poland]] by Imperial Russia, [[Prussia]], and [[Austria]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Scheuch|first=E.K.|author2=David Sciulli|title=Societies, Corporations and the Nation State|publisher=BRILL|year=2000|page=187|isbn=90-04-11664-8}}</ref> The Belarusian territories acquired by the Russian Empire under the reign of [[Catherine II of Russia|Catherine&nbsp;II]]<ref>{{harvnb|Birgerson|2002|page=101}}</ref> were included into the [[Belarusian Governorate]] ({{lang-rus|Белорусское генерал-губернаторство}}) in 1796 and held until their occupation by the [[German Empire]] during [[World War I]].<ref name="olson95">{{harvnb|Olson|Pappas|Pappas|1994|page=95}}</ref>
During the negotiations of the [[Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Russia–Central Powers)|Treaty of Brest-Litovsk]], Belarus first declared independence under German occupation on {{Nowrap|25 March}} 1918, forming the [[Belarusian People's Republic]].<ref name="birgerson">{{harvnb|Birgerson|2002|pages=105–106}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Ioffe|first=Grigory|title=Understanding Belarus and How Western Foreign Policy Misses the Mark|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc|date=25 February 2008|page=57|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=00B6wxgftH8C&pg=PA150&dq=west+belarus#v=onepage&q=west%20belarus&f=false|isbn=0-7425-5558-5}}</ref> Immediately afterwards, the [[Polish–Soviet War]] ignited, and the territory of Belarus was divided between Poland and Soviet Russia.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QJhMhTKw-vgC&pg=PA282&dq=belarus+partition&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiH9L3Cj8nLAhVM-2MKHWhcCPUQ6AEIPjAE#v=onepage&q=belarus%20partition&f=false|title=The Reconstruction of Nations|publisher=}}</ref>
===బెలారసియన్ సోవియట్ సోషలిస్ట్ రిపబ్లిక్ ===
===Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic===
{{Further information|Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic}}
A part of Belarus under Russian rule emerged as the [[Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic]] (Byelorussian SSR) in 1919. Soon thereafter it merged to form the [[Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic|Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR]]. The contested lands were divided between Poland and the [[Soviet Union]] after the war ended in 1921, and the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.<ref name="birgerson"/><ref>{{cite book|last=Marples|first=David|title=Belarus: A Denationalized Nation|publisher=Routledge|year=1999|page=5|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EMCYfOSaLSgC&pg=PA8&dq=Belarusian+People%27s+Republic|isbn=90-5702-343-1}}</ref> The western part of modern Belarus remained part of Poland.<ref name="ocu1">{{cite book|title=The global and the local: understanding the dialectics of business systems|last=Sorge|first=Arndt|year=2005|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|isbn=9780191535345}}</ref><ref name="ocu2">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RSxt-JB-PDkC&pg=PA37&dq=occupation+of+Western+Belarus|title=Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states|last=Minahan|first=James|year=1998|publisher=[[Greenwood Publishing Group|Greenwood Press]]|isbn=978-0-313-30610-5}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Nick Baron|author2=Peter Gatrell|title=Homelands|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FCBVPqAWuUsC&pg=PA19|accessdate=18 September 2015|date=10 August 2004|publisher=Anthem Press|isbn=978-1-84331-385-4|page=19|chapter=War, Population Displacement and State Formation in the Russian Borderlands 1914–1924}}</ref>
[[File:RIAN archive 848095 Signing the Agreement to eliminate the USSR and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States.jpg|thumb|Leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the [[Belavezha Accords]], [[Dissolution of the Soviet Union|dissolving the Soviet Union]], 8 December 1991|250x250px]]
===స్వతంత్రం ===
In March 1990, elections for seats in the [[Supreme Soviet]] of the Byelorussian SSR took place. Though the pro-independence [[Belarusian Popular Front]] took only 10% of the seats, the populace was content with the selection of the delegates.<ref name="byind">{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/belarus/39.htm|title=Belarus&nbsp;– Prelude to Independence|accessdate=22 December 2007|last=Fedor|first=Helen|year=1995|work=Belarus: A Country Study|publisher=[[Library of Congress]]}}</ref> Belarus declared itself sovereign on {{Nowrap|27 July}} 1990 by issuing the [[Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic]].
A [[Constitution of Belarus|national constitution]] was adopted in March 1994 in which the functions of prime minister were given to the [[President of Belarus]].
===స్వతంత్రం తరువాత ===
[[File:Alexander Lukashenko, opening of Slavianski Bazar 2014.jpg|thumb|[[Alexander Lukashenko]] has ruled Belarus since 1994, and is [[Europe]]'s longest currently ruling [[heads of state|head of state]].|250x250px]]
Two-round elections for the presidency on ({{Nowrap|24 June}} 1994 and {{Nowrap|10 July}} 1994)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact94/wf950026.txt|title=World Factbook: Belarus|accessdate=21 December 2007|date=20 October 1994|format=TXT|publisher=Central Intelligence Agency}}</ref> catapulted the formerly unknown [[Alexander Lukashenko]] into national prominence. He garnered 45% of the vote in the first round and 80%<ref name="byind"/> in the second, defeating [[Vyachaslau Kebich|Vyacheslav Kebich]] who received 14% of the vote. Lukashenko was re-elected [[Belarusian presidential election, 2001|in 2001]], [[Belarusian presidential election, 2006|in 2006]], [[Belarusian presidential election, 2010|in 2010]] and again [[Belarusian presidential election, 2015|in 2015]]. Western governments,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2012/09/25a.aspx?view=d|title=Standing up for Free and Fair Elections in Belarus|accessdate=7 January 2013|authors=Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada|date=25 September 2012|publisher=Government of Canada}}</ref> [[Amnesty International]],<ref name=amnesty>{{cite web|url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/region/europe-and-central-asia/eurasia/belarus |title=Human rights by country&nbsp;– Belarus |accessdate=22 December 2007 |year=2007 |work=Amnesty International Report 2007 |publisher=[[Amnesty International]] |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071212011715/http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/europe-and-central-asia/eurasia/belarus |archivedate=12 December 2007 |deadurl=no |df=dmy }}</ref> and [[Human Rights Watch]]<ref name="HRW"/> have criticized Lukashenko's [[authoritarian]] style of government.
"https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/ప్రత్యేక:MobileDiff/2275380" నుండి వెలికితీశారు

మార్గదర్శకపు మెనూ


వివిధ రూపాలు