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What is clear is that Harappan society was not entirely peaceful, with the human skeletal remains demonstrating some of the highest rates of injury (15.5%) found in South Asian prehistory.<ref>{{cite journal|url = | doi=10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09.012 | pmid=29539378 | volume=2 | issue=2–3 | title=A peaceful realm? Trauma and social differentiation at Harappa | year=2012 | journal=International Journal of Paleopathology | pages=136–147 | last1 = Robbins Schug | first1 = Gwen}}</ref> Paleopathological analysis demonstrated that leprosy and tuberculosis were present at Harappa, with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of the city walls).<ref name="plosone.org">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1371/journal.pone.0084814 | volume=8 | issue=12 | title=Infection, Disease, and Biosocial Processes at the End of the Indus Civilization | year=2013 | journal=PLoS ONE | page=e84814 | last1 = Robbins Schug | first1 = Gwen| pmc=3866234 }}</ref> Furthermore, rates of cranio-facial trauma and infection increased through time demonstrating that the civilization collapsed amid illness and injury. The bioarchaeologists who examined the remains have suggested that the combined evidence for differences in mortuary treatment and epidemiology indicate that some individuals and communities at Harappa were excluded from access to basic resources like health and safety, a basic feature of hierarchical societies worldwide.<ref name="plosone.org"/>
==Archaeology==
[[File:Archaeological Map of Harappa.png|thumb|A map of the excavations at Harappa]]
[[File:Harappan small figures.jpg|thumb|Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy.]]
The excavators of the site have proposed the following [[Periodization of the Indus Valley Civilization|chronology]] of Harappa's occupation:<ref name=unesco />
#Ravi Aspect of the [[Hakra]] phase, c. 3300 – 2800&nbsp;BC.
#Kot Dijian (Early Harappan) phase, c. 2800 – 2600&nbsp;BC.
#Harappan Phase, c. 2600 – 1900&nbsp;BC.
#Transitional Phase, c. 1900 – 1800&nbsp;BC.
#Late Harappan Phase, c. 1800 – 1300&nbsp;BC.
 
By far the most exquisite and obscure artifacts unearthed to date are the small, square [[steatite]] (soapstone) seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Many bear pictographic inscriptions generally thought to be a form of writing or script.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} Despite the efforts of philologists from all parts of the world, and despite the use of modern [[cryptography|cryptographic analysis]], the [[Indus script|signs]] remain undeciphered. It is also unknown if they reflect proto-[[Dravidian languages|Dravidian]] or other non-[[Vedic period|Vedic]] language(s). The ascribing of Indus Valley Civilization [[iconography]] and [[epigraphy]] to historically known cultures is extremely problematic, in part due to the rather tenuous archaeological evidence for such claims, as well as the projection of modern South Asian political concerns onto the archaeological record of the area. This is especially evident in the radically varying interpretations of Harappan material culture as seen from both Pakistan- and India-based scholars.{{or?|date=July 2019}}{{cn|date=July 2019}}
 
In February 2006 a school teacher in the village of Sembian-Kandiyur in [[Tamil Nadu]] discovered a stone [[celt (tool)]] with an inscription estimated to be up to 3,500 years old.<ref name="The Hindu_century">{{cite news | last=Subramaniam | first=T. S. | title= "Discovery of a century" in Tamil Nadu | date=May 1, 2006 | url =http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/01/stories/2006050112670100.htm | work =The Hindu | accessdate = 2008-05-21}}</ref>
<ref name="significance">{{cite news | last=Subramaniam | first=T. S. | title=Significance of Mayiladuthurai find | date=May 1, 2006 | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2006/05/01/stories/2006050101992000.htm | work=The Hindu | accessdate=2008-05-23 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080430214654/http://www.hinduonnet.com/2006/05/01/stories/2006050101992000.htm | archive-date=30 April 2008 | dead-url=yes }}</ref> Indian epigraphist [[Iravatham Mahadevan]] postulated that the four signs were in the Indus script and called the find "the greatest archaeological discovery of a century in Tamil Nadu".<ref name="The Hindu_century" /> Based on this evidence he goes on to suggest that the language used in the Indus Valley was of [[Dravidian languages|Dravidian]] origin. However, the absence of a Bronze Age in South India, contrasted with the knowledge of bronze making techniques in the Indus Valley cultures, calls into question the validity of this hypothesis.
 
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