"మౌర్య సామ్రాజ్యం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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అయినప్పటికీ అశోకుడి శాసనాలు వాస్తవ సంఘటనల కంటే పాలకుల కోరికను ప్రతిబింబిస్తాయి; రాజ వేట సంరక్షణలో జింకలను వేటాడినందుకు 100 'పనాస ' (నాణేలు) జరిమానా ప్రస్తావించడం చట్టాన్ని అతిక్రమించే వారు ఉన్నట్లు చూపిస్తుంది. చట్టపరమైన ఆంక్షలు సాధారణ ప్రజలు వేటాడటం, నరికివేయడం, చేపలు పట్టడం - అడవుల్లో మంటలు వేయడంలో పద్ధతులతో విభేదించాయి.
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==Contacts with the Hellenistic world==
[[File:MauryanRingstone.JPG|thumb|Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd Century BCE]]
 
===Foundation of the Empire===
Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. [[Plutarch]] reports that Chandragupta Maurya met with [[Alexander the Great]], probably around [[Taxila]] in the northwest:<ref name="RM16">{{cite book |last1=Mookerji |first1=Radhakumud |author-link1=Radha Kumud Mukherjee |title=Chandragupta Maurya and His Times |date=1966 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=9788120804050 |pages=16–17 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=i-y6ZUheQH8C&pg=PA16 |language=en}}</ref>
 
:"Sandrocottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth". Plutarch 62-4<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0243&layout=&loc=62.1|title=Plutarch, Alexander, chapter 1, section 1|publisher=}}</ref><ref name="RM16"/>
 
===Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 317–316&nbsp;BCE)===
Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps (described as "Prefects" in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been [[Eudemus (general)|Eudemus]], ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317&nbsp;BCE or [[Peithon, son of Agenor]], ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for [[Babylon]] in 316&nbsp;BCE.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}}
 
:"India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination" Justin XV.4.12–13<ref>"(Transitum deinde in Indiam fecit), quae post mortem Alexandri, ueluti ceruicibus iugo seruitutis excusso, praefectos eius occiderat. Auctor libertatis Sandrocottus fuerat, sed titulum libertatis post uictoriam in seruitutem uerterat ; 14 siquidem occupato regno populum quem ab externa dominatione uindicauerat ipse seruitio premebat." [http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/trad15.html Justin XV.4.12–13] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170420013859/http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/trad15.html |date=20 April 2017 }}</ref>
 
:"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory." Justin XV.4.19<ref>"Molienti deinde bellum aduersus praefectos Alexandri elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis ultro se obtulit et ueluti domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et proeliator insignis fuit. Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate, qua Seleucus futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat, Indiam possidebat." [http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/trad15.html Justin XV.4.19] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170420013859/http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/trad15.html |date=20 April 2017 }}</ref>
 
===Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305&nbsp;BCE)===
{{Main|Seleucid–Mauryan war}}
[[File:Diadoch.png|thumb|left|A map showing the north western border of Maurya Empire, including its various neighboring states.]]
[[Seleucus I Nicator]], the Macedonian [[satrap]] of the [[Asia]]n portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus ([[Appian]], ''History of Rome'', The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305&nbsp;BCE he entered into a confrontation with Emperor Chandragupta:
 
:<blockquote>"Always lying in wait for the neighbouring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus". [[Appian]], ''History of Rome'', The Syrian Wars 55<ref name="livius.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_11.html|title=Appian, The Syrian Wars 11|publisher=|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071103154609/http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_11.html|archivedate=3 November 2007|df=dmy-all}}</ref></blockquote>
 
Though no accounts of the conflict remain, it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed to conquer any territory, and in fact was forced to surrender much that was already his. Regardless, Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305&nbsp;BCE, Seleucus, according to Strabo, ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta, including eastern [[Afghanistan]] and [[Balochistan]].{{citation needed|date=August 2016}}
 
====Marital alliance====
Chandragupta and [[Seleucus I Nicator|Seleucus]] concluded a peace treaty and a marital alliance in 303 BCE. Chandragupta received vast territories and in a return gave Seleucus 500 [[war elephant]]s,{{sfn|R. C. Majumdar|2003|p=105}}<ref>Ancient India, (Kachroo, p.196)</ref><ref>The Imperial Gazetteer of India, (Hunter, p.167)</ref><ref>The evolution of man and society, (Darlington, p.223)</ref><ref>W. W. Tarn (1940). "Two Notes on Seleucid History: 1. Seleucus' 500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita", ''The Journal of Hellenic Studies'' '''60''', p. 84-94.</ref> a military asset which would play a decisive role at the [[Battle of Ipsus]] in 301&nbsp;BCE.{{sfn|Paul J. Kosmin|2014|p=37}} In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, [[Megasthenes]], to Chandragupta, and later [[Deimakos]] to his son [[Bindusara]], at the Mauryan court at [[Pataliputra]] (modern [[Patna]] in [[Bihar state|Bihar]]). Later, [[Ptolemy II Philadelphus]], the ruler of [[Ptolemaic Egypt]] and contemporary of [[Ashoka]], is also recorded by [[Pliny the Elder]] as having sent an ambassador named [[Dionysius (ambassador)|Dionysius]] to the Mauryan court.<ref name="perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de">{{cite web|url=http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+6.21 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130728023626/http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.%2BNat.%2B6.21 |dead-url=yes |archive-date=28 July 2013 |title=Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) |publisher= |df= }}</ref>{{better source|date=August 2016}}
 
Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory west of the Indus, including the [[Hindu Kush]], modern-day [[Afghanistan]], and the [[Balochistan, Pakistan|Balochistan]] province of [[Pakistan]].<ref>[[Vincent Arthur Smith|Vincent A. Smith]] (1998). ''Ashoka''. Asian Educational Services. {{ISBN|81-206-1303-1}}.</ref><ref>[[Walter Eugene Clark]] (1919). "The Importance of Hellenism from the Point of View of Indic-Philology", ''Classical Philology'' '''14''' (4), p. 297-313.</ref> Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the [[Edicts of Ashoka]], are known as far as [[Kandahar]] in southern Afghanistan.
 
{{cquote|"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya], king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship." | [[Appian]]| ''History of Rome'', The Syrian Wars [http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_11.html 55]}}
 
{{cquote|"After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order the Orient situation, Seleucos went to war against [[Antigonus I Monophthalmus|Antigonus]]."|20px|20px|[[Junianus Justinus]]|''Historiarum Philippicarum, libri XLIV'', [http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/trad15.html XV.4.15]}}
 
The treaty on "[[Epigamia]]" implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both.{{citation needed|date=July 2009}}
 
====Exchange of presents====
Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various [[aphrodisiac]]s to Seleucus:{{sfn|Paul J. Kosmin|2014|p=35}}
:"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love." [[Athenaeus of Naucratis]], "[[The deipnosophists]]" Book I, chapter 32<ref>{{cite web|url=http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/Literature/Literature-idx?type=turn&entity=Literature000701860036&isize=M&pview=hide|title=Problem while searching in The Literature Collection|publisher=|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070313151642/http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/Literature/Literature-idx?type=turn&entity=Literature000701860036&isize=M&pview=hide|archivedate=13 March 2007|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
His son [[Bindusara]] 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged presents with [[Antiochus I]]:{{sfn|Paul J. Kosmin|2014|p=35}}
:"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really, as [[Aristophanes]] says, "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs"), that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote to [[Antiochus I Soter|Antiochus]], entreating him (it is [[Hegesander (historian)|Hegesander]] who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a [[sophist]]; and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer, "The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece." [[Athenaeus]], "[[Deipnosophistae]]" XIV.67<ref>{{cite web|url=http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/Literature/Literature-idx?type=goto&id=Literature.AthV3&isize=M&page=1044|title=The Literature Collection: The deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the learned of Athenæus (volume III): Book XIV|publisher=|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071011201316/http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/Literature/Literature-idx?type=goto&id=Literature.AthV3&isize=M&page=1044|archivedate=11 October 2007|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
===Greek population in India===
An influential and large Greek population was present in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule, possibly remnants of Alexander's conquests in the Indus Valley region. In the [[Edicts of Ashoka|Rock Edicts of Ashoka]], some of them inscribed in Greek, Ashoka states that the Greeks within his dominion were converted to Buddhism:
:<blockquote>"Here in the king's dominion among the [[Yona|Greeks]], the [[Kambojas]], the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the [[Andhra Pradesh|Andhras]] and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in [[Dharma]]." [[Edicts of Ashoka|(Rock Edict Number 13]])</blockquote>[[File:Ashoka Rock Edicts Shahbazgarhi by Nisar.JPG|thumb|An Edict of Ashoka in Shahbazbarhi, KPK, Pakistan.]]<blockquote>"Now, in times past (officers) called [[Mahamatras]] of morality did not exist before. Mahdmatras of morality were appointed by me (when I had been) anointed thirteen years. These are occupied with all sects in establishing morality, in promoting morality, and for the welfare and happiness of those who are devoted to morality (even) among the [[Yona|Greeks]], [[Kambojas]] and [[Gandharas]], and whatever other western borderers (of mine there are)." ([[Major Rock Edicts|Rock Edict Number 5]])</blockquote>
 
[[File:AsokaKandahar.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Kandahar Edict of Ashoka]], a bilingual edict ([[Greek language|Greek]] and [[Aramaic]]) by king Ashoka, from [[Kandahar]]. [[Kabul]] Museum. (Click image for translation).]]
Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic, has been discovered in [[Kandahar]]. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word [[Eusebeia]] ("[[Piety]]") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous "[[Dharma]]" of his other Edicts written in [[Prakrit]]:{{npsn|date=August 2016}}
:"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (''εὐσέβεια'', [[Eusebeia]]) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily". (Trans. by G.P. Carratelli [https://web.archive.org/web/20051103235517/http://www.afghanan.net/afghanistan/mauryans.htm]){{unreliable source?|date=August 2016}}
 
===Buddhist missions to the West (c. 250&nbsp;BCE)===
<gallery widths="200" heights="200">
AiKhanoumAndIndia.jpg|The distribution of the [[Edicts of Ashoka]].<ref>Reference: "India: The Ancient Past" p.113, Burjor Avari, Routledge, {{ISBN|0-415-35615-6}}</ref>
Asoka̠ Buddhist Missions.png|Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of [[Ashoka]].
Territories conquered by the Dharma according to Ashoka.jpg|Territories "conquered by the Dharma" according to [[Major Rock Edicts|Major Rock Edict No.13]] of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).<ref name=PK>{{cite book |last1=Kosmin |first1=Paul J. |title=The Land of the Elephant Kings |date=2014 |publisher=Harvard University Press |isbn=9780674728820 |page=57 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9UWdAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA57 |language=en}}</ref><ref name=ME368>Thomas Mc Evilly "The shape of ancient thought", Allworth Press, New York, 2002, p.368</ref>
</gallery>
Also, in the [[Edicts of Ashoka]], Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as recipients of his [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] proselytism, although no Western historical record of this event remains:
:"The conquest by [[Dharma]] has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred [[yojana]]s (5,400–9,600&nbsp;km) away, where the Greek king [[Antiochus II Theos|Antiochos]] rules, beyond there where the four kings named [[Ptolemy II Philadelphus|Ptolemy]], [[Antigonus Gonatas|Antigonos]], [[Magas of Cyrene|Magas]] and [[Alexander II of Epirus|Alexander]] rule, likewise in the south among the [[Chola]]s, the [[Pandya]]s, and as far as [[Tamraparni]] ([[Sri Lanka]])." ([[Edicts of Ashoka]], 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika).{{npsn|date=August 2016}}
 
Ashoka also encouraged the development of [[herbal medicine]], for men and animals, in their territories:
:"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the [[Chola]]s, the [[Pandya]]s, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as [[Tamraparni]] and where the Greek king [[Antiochus II Theos|Antiochos]] rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals". [[Edicts of Ashoka|2nd Rock Edict]]{{npsn|date=August 2016}}
 
The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as [[Dharmaraksita]], are described in [[Pāli|Pali]] sources as leading Greek ("[[Yona]]") Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the [[Mahavamsa]], XII<ref>Full text of the Mahavamsa [http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/chapters.html Click chapter XII] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060905050433/http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/chapters.html |date=5 September 2006 }}</ref>{{npsn|date=August 2016}}).
 
===Subhagasena and Antiochos III (206&nbsp;BCE)===
[[Sophagasenus]] was an Indian [[Mauryan]] ruler of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagasena or Subhashasena in [[Prakrit]]. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes{{citation needed|date=June 2007}}, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant of Pradyumna. He may have been a grandson of [[Ashoka]], or [[Kunala]], the son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the [[Hindu Kush]], possibly in [[Gandhara]]. [[Antiochos III]], the [[Seleucid]] king, after having made peace with [[Euthydemus II|Euthydemus]] in [[Bactria]], went to India in 206&nbsp;BCE and is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there:
 
"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him". [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plb.+11.39 Polybius 11.39]{{npsn|date=August 2016}}
 
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