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2 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 0 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0
(13 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 0 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0)
(2 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 0 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0)
[[Ahmad Shah Durrani|Ahmad Shah]], founder of the [[Durrani Empire]], declared a jihad against the [[Maratha]]s, and warriors from various [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] tribes, as well as other tribes answered his call. The [[Third battle of Panipat]] (January 1761), fought between largely [[Islam|Muslim]] and largely [[Hinduism|Hindu]] armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each, was waged along a twelve-kilometre front, and resulted in a decisive victory for Ahmad Shah.<ref>for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H.G. Keene. Available online at [http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710191356/http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm |date=2011-07-10 }}</ref>
 
In response to the [[Hazara people|Hazara]] uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir [[Abdur Rahman]] declared a "Jihad" against the [[Shiites]]. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in [[Oruzgan]], by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, ''"thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir"''. Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the [[Pashtun]]s; although [[Amanullah Khan]] banned [[slavery]] in Afghanistan during his reign,<ref>[http://www.afghangovernment.com/Constitution1923.htm Afghan Constitution: 1923]</ref> the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml |title=Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110613114859/http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml |archive-date=2011-06-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
The [[First Anglo-Afghan War]] (1838–42) was one of Britain’s most ill-advised and disastrous wars. [[William Brydon]] was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.<ref>[http://www.britishbattles.com/first-afghan-war/kabul-gandamak.htm First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak]</ref> As in the earlier [[Invasions of Afghanistan|wars against the British]] and [[Soviet war in Afghanistan|Soviets]], Afghan resistance to the [[Invasions of Afghanistan#American invasion|American invaders]] took the traditional form of a Muslim holy war against the infidels.<ref>[http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/opinion/story.html?id=1db342f6-7872-4c39-8410-81ad3a916908&k=25970 Reason to hope Canadians don't repeat history in Afghanistan], Alan G. Jamieson, The Edmonton Journal, July 31 2006</ref> During September 2002, the remnants of the [[Taliban]] forces began a recruitment drive in [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] areas in both [[Afghanistan]] and [[Pakistan]] to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the pro-Western Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. [[Pamphlet]]s distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad.<ref>{{cite web|title= Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside|author=|publisher=[[Associated Press]]|date=2003-02-14|url=http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/02/14/16788-1.html|accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref> Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in [[guerrilla warfare]] and [[terrorism|terrorist tactics]], according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report.<ref>{{cite web|title=Taliban regroups - on the road|author=Tohid, Owias|publisher=[[Christian Science Monitor]]|date=2003-06-27|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0627/p06s01-wosc.html?related |accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref>
# Against the rejecters of truth after it has become evident to them
 
The first type of Jihad is generally considered eternal, but Ghamidi holds that the second is specific to people who were selected by God for delivering the truth as an obligation. They are called witnesses of the truth (Arabic:'''{{lang|ar|شهادة}}''', see also [[Itmam al-hujjah]]); the implication being that they bear witness to the truth before other people in such a complete and ultimate manner that no one is left with an excuse to deny the truth.<ref name="jihad" /> There is a dispute among Islamic jurists as to whether the act of being "witness" was only for the [[Sahaba|Companions]] of Muhammad or whether this responsibility is still being held by modern Muslims, which may entitle them to take actions to subdue other Non-Muslim nations. Proponents of [[Sahaba|Companions]] of Muhammad as being "the witness" translate the following verse only for the Companions<ref name="jihad" /> while others translate it for the whole [[Ummah|Muslim nation]].<ref>[[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi]], [[The Meaning of the Qur'an (tafsir)]], commentary on verse 2:143.[http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=2&tno=79] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090114020324/http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=2&tno=79 |date=2009-01-14 }}</ref> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And similarly [O [[Sahaba|Companions]] of the [[Muhammad|Prophet]]!] We have made you an intermediate group<ref>This means that this group stands between Muhammad and the rest of the world who were able to observe the whole process of ''witnessing''</ref> so that you be witnesses [to this religion] before the nations, and the Messenger be such a witness before you.|[[ఖురాన్]]}}
 
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