"పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్రం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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[[File:A generall chart of the South Sea ... NYPL481132.tiff|thumb|Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707.]]
[[File:A compleat chart of the coast of Asia and America with the great South Sea - R.W. Seale del. et sculp. NYPL465242.tiff|thumb|Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1754.]]
1512 లో ఐరోపా నావికులు ఆంటోనియో డి అబ్రూ , ఫ్రాన్సిస్కో సెర్రియో పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్రం పశ్చిమ అంచులోని లెసెర్ సుండా దీవుల మీదుగా మలుకు దీవులకు చేరుకోవడంతో ఐరోపియా నావికుల పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్ర అణ్వేషణ మొదలుకావడంతో పోర్చుగీస్ నావికుల పసిఫిక్ యాత్రలు కొనసాగాయి.<ref>{{cite book|last=Hannard|first=Willard A.|title=Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its Aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands|publisher=Yayasan Warisan dan Budaya Banda Naira |year=1991|location=[[Bandanaira]]|page=7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Milton|first=Giles|authorlink=Giles Milton|title=Nathaniel's Nutmeg|publisher=Sceptre|date=1999|location=London|pages=5, 7|isbn= 978-0-340-69676-7}}</ref> 1513 <ref name="Porter, Jonathan 1996">Porter, Jonathan. (1996). ''Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present''. Westview Press. {{ISBN|0-8133-3749-6}}</ref> 1513లో మలక్కా నుండి అఫోన్సో డి అల్బుకెర్కీ ఆదేశంతో జార్జ్ అల్వారెస్ దక్షిణ చైనాకు యాత్ర చేసాడు.
 
1513 లో స్పానిష్ అన్వేషకుడు వాస్కో నీజ్ డి బాల్బోవా తన అణ్వేషణలో భాగంగా మహాసముద్రం తూర్పు వైపుకు చేరుకున్నాడు. తరువాత ఆయన యాత్ర ఇస్తమస్ ఆఫ్ పనామా దాటి కొత్త సముద్రానికి చేరుకున్నాడు.<ref name="Ober">{{cite book|last=Ober|first=Frederick Albion|title=Vasco Nuñez de Balboa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=98zUIbdvAYgC&pg=PT129|publisher=Library of Alexandria|isbn=978-1-4655-7034-5|page=129|year=2010}}</ref> సముద్రం ఇస్త్ముస్ తీరానికి దక్షిణంగా ఉంది కనుక ఆయన దీనికి మార్ డెల్ సుర్ ("దక్షిణ సముద్రం" లేదా "దక్షిణ సముద్రం" అని పేరు పెట్టాడు). ఇది ఆయన మొదట పసిఫిక్ యాత్రగా గుర్తించబడింది.
The first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of [[António de Abreu]] and [[Francisco Serrão]], via the [[Lesser Sunda Islands]], to the [[Maluku Islands]], in 1512,<ref>{{cite book|last=Hannard|first=Willard A.|title=Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its Aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands|publisher=Yayasan Warisan dan Budaya Banda Naira |year=1991|location=[[Bandanaira]]|page=7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Milton|first=Giles|authorlink=Giles Milton|title=Nathaniel's Nutmeg|publisher=Sceptre|date=1999|location=London|pages=5, 7|isbn= 978-0-340-69676-7}}</ref> and with [[Jorge Álvares]]'s expedition to southern China in 1513,<ref name="Porter, Jonathan 1996">Porter, Jonathan. (1996). ''Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present''. Westview Press. {{ISBN|0-8133-3749-6}}</ref> both ordered by [[Afonso de Albuquerque]] from [[Portuguese Malacca|Malacca]].
 
The eastern side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer [[Vasco Núñez de Balboa]] in 1513 after his expedition crossed the [[Isthmus of Panama]] and reached a new ocean.<ref name="Ober">{{cite book|last=Ober|first=Frederick Albion|title=Vasco Nuñez de Balboa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=98zUIbdvAYgC&pg=PT129|publisher=Library of Alexandria|isbn=978-1-4655-7034-5|page=129|year=2010}}</ref> He named it ''Mar del Sur'' (literally, "Sea of the South" or "South Sea") because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific.
 
[[File:SpanishPacific.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|Map showing a large number of Spanish expeditions across the Pacific Ocean from the 16th to 18th centuries including the [[Manila galleon]] route between Acapulco and Manila, the first [[Transpacific crossing|transpacific]] trade route in history.]]
| doi = 10.2307/2506024
}}</ref>
 
 
 
 
The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians in [[Alaska]] and the [[Aleutian Islands]], such as the [[First Kamchatka expedition]] and the [[Great Northern Expedition]], led by the Danish Russian navy officer [[Vitus Bering]]. Spain also sent [[Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest|expeditions to the Pacific Northwest]], reaching [[Vancouver Island]] in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled [[Polynesia]], and the British made three voyages with [[James Cook]] to the South Pacific and [[Australia]], [[Hawaii]], and the North American [[Pacific Northwest]]. In 1768, [[Pierre-Antoine Véron]], a young [[astronomer]] accompanying [[Louis Antoine de Bougainville]] on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history.<ref name="Williams2004">{{cite book|last=Williams|first=Glyndwr|title=Captain Cook: Explorations And Reassessments|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=VqDHGru-zcIC&pg=PA143|date=2004|publisher=Boydell Press|isbn=978-1-84383-100-6|page=143}}</ref> One of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the [[Malaspina Expedition]] of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific.<ref name="Fernandez-Armesto 2006 305–307" />
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