"పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్రం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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===భూఖండాలు - ద్వీపాలు ===
=== Landmasses and islands ===
[[File:South Tarawa from the air.jpg|thumb|కిర్బతీ రిపబ్లిక్కులో తర్వా అటాల్]]
{{Main|Pacific Islands}}
Theపసిఫిక్ Pacificమహాసముద్రంలో Oceanప్రపంచంలోని hasఅనేక mostద్వీపాలు of the islands in the worldఉన్నాయి. Thereపసిఫిక్ areమహాసముద్రంలో aboutసుమారు 25,000 islands in the Pacificద్వీపాలు Oceanఉన్నాయి.<ref>{{cite web|last1=K|first1=Harsh|title=This ocean has most of the islands in the world|url=http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|website=Mysticalroads|accessdate=6 April 2017|date=19 March 2017|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170802153519/http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|archivedate=2 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ishihara|first1=Masahide|last2=Hoshino|first2=Eiichi|last3=Fujita|first3=Yoko|title=Self-determinable Development of Small Islands|date=2016|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-981-10-0132-1|page=180|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3hNkDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA180|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=United States. [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]|last2=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council|title=Toward an Ecosystem Approach for the Western Pacific Region: from Species-based Fishery Management Plans to Place-based Fishery Ecosystem Plans: Environmental Impact Statement|date=2009|publisher=Northwestern University|location=Evanston, IL|page=60|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3Tw3AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA60|language=en|author2-link=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council}}</ref> Theపూర్తిగా islandsపసిఫిక్ entirelyమహాసముద్రంలో withinఉన్న theద్వీపాలను Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as [[Micronesia]]మైక్రోనేషియా, [[Melanesia]] and [[Polynesia]]. Micronesiaమెలనేషియా, whichపాలినేషియా liesఅని northపిలువబడే ofమూడు theప్రధాన equatorసమూహాలుగా andవిభజించారు. westభూమధ్యరేఖకు of the [[International Date Line]]ఉత్తరం, includesఅంతర్జాతీయ theకాలరేఖకు [[Marianaపశ్చిమంలో Islands]]ఉన్న in the northwestమైక్రోనేషియాలో, theవాయువ్య [[Carolineదిశలో Islands]]మరియానా in the centerదీవులు, theమధ్యలో [[Marshallఉన్న Islands]]కరోలిన్ toదీవులు, theతూర్పున eastమార్షల్ andదీవులు, theఆగ్నేయంలో islandsకిరిబాటి of [[Kiribati]] in theద్వీపాలు southeastఉన్నాయి.<ref name="AAE">{{cite book|title=Academic American encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cF8NAQAAMAAJ|date=1997|publisher=Grolier Incorporated|isbn=978-0-7172-2068-7|page=8}}</ref><ref name="LalFortune2000p63">{{cite book|last1=Lal|first1=Brij Vilash|last2=Fortune|first2=Kate|title=The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=T5pPpJl8E5wC&pg=PA63|date=2000|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|isbn=978-0-8248-2265-1|page=63}}</ref>
[[File:South Tarawa from the air.jpg|thumb|[[Tarawa Atoll]] in the Republic of [[Kiribati]]]]
The Pacific Ocean has most of the islands in the world. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web|last1=K|first1=Harsh|title=This ocean has most of the islands in the world|url=http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|website=Mysticalroads|accessdate=6 April 2017|date=19 March 2017|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170802153519/http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|archivedate=2 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ishihara|first1=Masahide|last2=Hoshino|first2=Eiichi|last3=Fujita|first3=Yoko|title=Self-determinable Development of Small Islands|date=2016|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-981-10-0132-1|page=180|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3hNkDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA180|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=United States. [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]|last2=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council|title=Toward an Ecosystem Approach for the Western Pacific Region: from Species-based Fishery Management Plans to Place-based Fishery Ecosystem Plans: Environmental Impact Statement|date=2009|publisher=Northwestern University|location=Evanston, IL|page=60|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3Tw3AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA60|language=en|author2-link=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council}}</ref> The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as [[Micronesia]], [[Melanesia]] and [[Polynesia]]. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the [[International Date Line]], includes the [[Mariana Islands]] in the northwest, the [[Caroline Islands]] in the center, the [[Marshall Islands]] to the east and the islands of [[Kiribati]] in the southeast.<ref name="AAE">{{cite book|title=Academic American encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cF8NAQAAMAAJ|date=1997|publisher=Grolier Incorporated|isbn=978-0-7172-2068-7|page=8}}</ref><ref name="LalFortune2000p63">{{cite book|last1=Lal|first1=Brij Vilash|last2=Fortune|first2=Kate|title=The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=T5pPpJl8E5wC&pg=PA63|date=2000|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|isbn=978-0-8248-2265-1|page=63}}</ref>
 
Melanesia, to the southwest, includes [[New Guinea]], the world's second largest island after [[Greenland]] and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the [[Bismarck Archipelago]], the [[Solomon Islands]], [[Santa Cruz Islands|Santa Cruz]], [[Vanuatu]], [[Fiji]] and [[New Caledonia]].<ref name="West2009">{{cite book|last=West|first=Barbara A.|title=Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pCiNqFj3MQsC&pg=PA521|date=2009|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1-4381-1913-7|page=521}}</ref>
 
 
The largest area, [[Polynesia]], stretching from [[Hawaii]] in the north to [[New Zealand]] in the south, also encompasses [[Tuvalu]], [[Tokelau]], [[Samoa]], [[Tonga]] and the [[Kermadec Islands]] to the west, the [[Cook Islands]], [[Society Islands]] and [[Austral Islands]] in the center, and the [[Marquesas Islands]], [[Tuamotus|Tuamotu]], [[Mangareva Islands]], and [[Easter Island]] to the east.<ref name="DunfordRidgell1996">{{cite book|last1=Dunford|first1=Betty|last2=Ridgell|first2=Reilly|title=Pacific Neighbors: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3n2z7E1zH3MC|date=1996|publisher=Bess Press|isbn=978-1-57306-022-6|page=125}}</ref>
నైరుతి దిశలో ఉన్న మెలానేసియాలో న్యూజినియా పపంచంలో రెండవ అతిపెద్ద ద్వీపం (గ్రీన్లాండు తరువాత)గానూ పసిఫిక్ ద్వీపాలలో అతిపెద్దదిగానూ గుర్తించబడుతుంది. ఉత్తరం నుండి దక్షిణం మెలనేసియన్ సమూహాలు బిస్మార్కు ద్వీపసమూహం, సోలమన్ దీవులు, శాంటా క్రజ్, వనాటు, ఫిజి, న్యూ కాలెడోనియా వంటి ఇతర ద్వీపసమూహాలు ఉన్నాయి.<ref name="West2009">{{cite book|last=West|first=Barbara A.|title=Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pCiNqFj3MQsC&pg=PA521|date=2009|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1-4381-1913-7|page=521}}</ref>
 
అతిపెద్ద ప్రాంతం అయిన పాలినేషియా ఉత్తరాన హవాయి నుండి దక్షిణాన న్యూజిలాండ్ వరకు విస్తరించి ఉంది. వీటి చుట్టూ తువాలు, టోకెలావ్, సమోవా, టోంగా, పశ్చిమాన కెర్మాడెక్ దీవులు, కుక్ దీవులు, సొసైటీ దీవులు, ఆస్ట్రేలియా ద్వీపాలు ఉన్నాయి. తూర్పున మార్క్వాస్ దీవులు, తుయామోటు, మంగరేవా దీవులు, ఈస్టర్ ద్వీపం ఉన్నాయి.<ref name="DunfordRidgell1996">{{cite book|last1=Dunford|first1=Betty|last2=Ridgell|first2=Reilly|title=Pacific Neighbors: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3n2z7E1zH3MC|date=1996|publisher=Bess Press|isbn=978-1-57306-022-6|page=125}}</ref>
 
Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are [[Bougainville Island|Bougainville]], Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.<ref name="GillespieClague2009">{{cite book|last1=Gillespie|first1=Rosemary G.|last2=Clague|first2=David A.|title=Encyclopedia of Islands|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=g9ZogGs_fz8C&pg=PA706|date=2009|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-25649-1|page=706}}</ref>
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