"తైవాన్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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తైవానీ ససంస్కృతి ఇతర సంస్కృతులను సహితం ప్రభావితం చేస్తుంది. తైవానీయుల బబుల్ టీ మరియు మిల్క్ టీ [[సింగపూర్]], [[మలేషియా]], ఆస్ట్రేలియా]], [[యూరప్]] మరియు [[అమెరికా]] లలో లభ్యం ఔతున్నాయి. తైవాన్ టీ.వి కాత్యక్రమాలు సింగపూర్, మలేషియా మరియు ఇతర ఆసియన్ దేశాలలో ప్రదర్శించబడుతున్నాయి. తైవాన్ చలన చిత్రాలు పలు అంతర్జాతీయ చలనచిత్ర ఉత్సవాలలో అవార్డులను గెలుచుకున్నాయి. తైవాన్ చలన చిత్ర దర్శకుడు అంగ్ లీ దర్శకత్వం వహించిన క్రంచింగ్ టైగర్, హైడెన్ డ్రాగన్, ఈట్ డ్రింక్, మన్ వుమన్, సెంస్ మరియు సెంసిబిలిటీ వంటి చిత్రాలు అంతర్జాతీయ బహుమతులు గెలుచుకున్నాయి. ఎడ్వర్డ్ యంగ్ మరియు హ్యూ సియో-సైన్ వంటి వారి దర్శకత్వంలో రూపొందిన బ్రోక్ బ్యాక్, లైఫ్ ఆఫ్ పై మరియు లస్ట్, కాషన్ వంటి చిత్రాలు అంతర్జాతీయ గుర్తింపు పొందాయి.
== Taiwan's population was estimated in 2012 at 23,261,747, most of whom are on the island of Taiwan. The remainder live on Penghu (97,724), Kinmen (108,147) and the Matsu Islands (10,253).[8]
Ethnic groups[edit]
Main articles: Taiwanese aborigines and Taiwanese people
 
 
Bunun dancer in traditional aboriginal dress
About 98% of Taiwan's population is of Han Chinese ethnicity.[4] Of these, 86% are descendants of early Han Chinese immigrants known as the "benshengren" (Chinese: 本省人; pinyin: Běnshěng rén; literally "home-province person") in Chinese.[4] This group is often referred to "native Taiwanese" in English, but the term is also frequently used for the Taiwanese aborigines. The benshengren group contains two subgroups: the Hoklo people (70% of the total population), whose ancestors migrated from the coastal southern Fujian (Min-nan) region in the southeast of mainland China starting in the 17th century, and the Hakka (15% of the total population), whose ancestors originally migrated south to Guangdong, its surrounding areas and Taiwan.[4]
About 12% of the population are known as waishengren (Chinese: 外省人; pinyin: Wàishěng rén; literally "out-of-province person"), composed of people who emigrated from mainland China after 1945.[4]
The other 2.25% of the population are about 522,942 Taiwanese aborigines, divided into 14 major groups. The Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Sakizaya, Sediq, Thao, Truku and Tsou live mostly in the eastern half of the island, while the Yami inhabit Orchid Island.[4][197][198]
Languages[edit]
Main article: Languages of Taiwan
Mandarin is the official national language and is spoken by the vast majority of the population of Taiwan. It has been the primary language of instruction in schools since the Japanese were forced out in the 1940s. As in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese is used in Taiwan.[199]
Most Waishengren speak primarily Mandarin. The 70% of the population belonging to the Hoklo ethnic group speak Taiwanese (a variant of the Min Nan speech of Fujian province) as their mother tongue, in addition to Mandarin, and many others have some degree of understanding. The Hakka ethnic group (15% of the population) use the Hakka language.[200] Although Mandarin is the language of instruction in schools and dominates television and radio, non-Mandarin languages or dialects have undergone a revival in public life in Taiwan, particularly since restrictions on their use were lifted in the 1990s.[199]
Taiwan's indigenous languages, the Formosan languages, do not belong to the Chinese or Sino-Tibetan language family, but rather to the Austronesian language family. Their use among Taiwan's aboriginal minority groups has been in decline as usage of Mandarin has risen.[199] Of the 14 extant languages, five are considered moribund.[201]
Religion[edit]
Main article: Religion in Taiwan
 
 
Main sanctuary of Fo Guang Shan Monastery near Kaohsiung
The Constitution of the Republic of China protects people's freedom of religion and the practices of belief.[202] There are approximately 18,718,600 religious followers in Taiwan as of 2005 (81.3% of total population) and 14–18% are non-religious. According to the 2005 census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism (8,086,000 or 35.1%), Taoism (7,600,000 or 33%), I-Kuan Tao (810,000 or 3.5%), Protestantism (605,000 or 2.6%), and Roman Catholicism (298,000 or 1.3%).[203] But according to the CIA World Factbook and other latest sources from US State Department or the Religious Affairs Section of the MOI, over 93% of Taiwanese are adherents of a combination of the polytheistic ancient Chinese religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism; 4.5% are adherents of Christianity, which includes Protestants, Catholics, and other, non-denominational, Christian groups; and less than 2.5% are adherents of other religions, such as Islam.[4][204] Taiwanese aborigines comprise a notable subgroup among professing Christians: "...over 64 percent identify as Christian... Church buildings are the most obvious markers of Aboriginal villages, distinguishing them from Taiwanese or Hakka villages."[205]
 
 
Confucian temple at Lotus Lake in Kaohsiung
Confucianism is a philosophy that deals with secular moral ethics, and serves as the foundation of both Chinese and Taiwanese culture. The majority of Taiwanese people usually combine the secular moral teachings of Confucianism with whatever religions they are affiliated with.
As of 2009, there are 14,993 temples in Taiwan, approximately one place of worship per 1,500 residents. 9,202 of those temples were dedicated to Taoism. In 2008, Taiwan had 3,262 Churches, an increase of 145.[206]
 
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