రిబా

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రిబా (అరబ్బీ: رباribā, IPA: [ˈrɪbæː]) అనగా వడ్డీ. ఇస్లామీయ ఆర్థిక న్యాయశాస్త్రం, ఫికహ్ ప్రకారం ఇది నిషేధింపబడింది. దీనిని అనైతికం గానూ, అధర్మంగానూ, పెద్ద నేరం గానూ పరిగణించారు. వ్యవహారాలలో, వ్యాపారాలలో దీనిని క్షుద్రంగానూ, నీతిబాహ్యమైన చర్యగానూ, అమానవీయంగానూ భావించారు.

ఇస్లామీయ న్యాయకోవిదుల ప్రకారం రిబా రెండు రకాలు : ఇచ్చిన అసలులో ఎటువంటి సేవ లేకుండా పెరుగుదల లేదా అభివృద్ధి, ఇది ఖురాన్ ప్రకారం నిషేధితం. రెండవది, వస్తురూపేణా ఇచ్చుకోలు ఇది కూడా ఖురాన్ ప్రకారం నిషేధం.

Background[మార్చు]

రిబా అనునది ఒక అరబ్బీ భాష పదజాలం, అర్థం "వడ్డీ" "కూడిక" లేదా "పెరుగుదల".

రిబా, ముహమ్మద్ యొక్క మదీనా సమాజంలో నిషేధింపబడినది, క్రైస్తవ ప్రపంచంలో కూడా మధ్యయుగంలో నిషేధింపబడింది. చారిత్రకంగా, ముస్లిం న్యాయవాదుల సామూహిక న్యాయసూత్ర ప్రకారం, అప్పు పైన అధికంగా చెల్లించబడే రొక్కం, ఇది నిషేధింపదగ్గది, ఈ సూత్రం ఆధారంగానే ఇస్లామీయ సమాజంలో, ఇస్లామీయ రాజ్యాలలో దీన్ని నిషేధించారు. ఐరోపా లోని జ్ఞానోదయకాలం "పునరుజ్జీవనకాలం" లోనూ ఈ వడ్డే నిషేధింపబడింది.

ఖురాన్ లో చర్చించబడిన పదజాలం. అప్పుపైకంపై ఇవ్వబడే వడ్డీ లేదా పెరుగుదల. The Quranic term is not limited to money but as well includes all loan transactions in which the debtor returns a sum of goods in excess or above the original loan, be it money, eatable or any other item or goods; anything in excess of original is considered riba if items exchanged are of the same kind (such as gold for gold). Riba is any increment on a loan or debt, either preconditioned or in rescheduling.

Riba is considered amongst the Seven heinous sins (Al-Saba al-Mubiqat - السَبعَ الموبِقاتِ), namely:[1]

  • ఏకేశ్వర (అల్లాహ్)ఉపాసన బదులు బహుఈశ్వరారాధన.
  • క్షుద్రవిద్య.
  • హత్య.
  • రిబా / వడ్డీ.
  • అనాథల సొమ్మును స్వాహా చేయడం.
  • యుద్ధక్షేత్రం నుండి పలాయనం చేయడం.
  • పరిశుద్ధులను, శీలవంతులైన స్త్రీలపై నిందారోపణ చేయడం.

The Qur'an states:[2]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ الرِّبَا أَضْعَافًا مُّضَاعَفَةً وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

3:130 O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and multiplied, but fear Allah that you may be successful.

وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

2:275 Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest

Muhammad said in his farewell sermon: "God has forbidden you to take Riba, therefore all riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no riba and that all the riba due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.".[3]

The Qur'an explicitly prohibits riba, and since the Qur'an is an undisputed source of guidance for Muslims, all Muslim authorities unanimously agree on prohibition of riba. There is no difference of opinion between any school of thought on the prohibition of riba in Islamic shariah.

The Qur'an mentions that the person who deals with riba (ربا) will stand (on judgement day) as one who is beaten by Satan into insanity.[4] Here, Qur'an makes it clear that "trade" and "riba" are not the same and that God forbade "riba" and allowed "trade".[5] It further states that whoever accepts the guidance of God must immediately stop dealing in riba, and those who return to riba after God's guidance has reached are dwellers in fire because God destroys "riba" and will reward those who give to charity.

Muhammad cursed the one who deals with riba. From Jabir: Muhammad cursed the receiver and the payer of riba, the one who records it and the two witnesses to the transaction and said: "They are all alike [in guilt]." [Sahih al-Muslim, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Bahiqi and Musnad Ahmad]

Islamic shariah considers riba as a tool of oppression and a means to unjustly take the money of others[6] by exploiting their needs and circumstances. Hence, it forbids a riba-based system altogether and promotes charity as an alternative. Therefore, Muhammad said: "God has judged that there shall be no riba" [Last Sermon]

The crimes of dealing in riba are so serious that God has declared war against those who deal in it.[7] Muhammad has cursed anyone who deals with riba, the one who takes it, the one who pays it and the one who records it, as their sins are considered equal under the Quran.[8]

Riba is considered to be a greater sin, for Muslims, than that of eating pork or drinking alcohol. Muhammad declared the practice of riba worse than adultery, worse than "to a man committing adultery with his own mother".[9]

పద వ్యుత్పత్తి[మార్చు]

The word was linguistically used by the Arabs prior to Islam to refer to an increase. In commercial practice, it referred to the increase on loans, namely, interest.

The definition of riba in classical Islamic jurisprudence was "surplus value without counterpart." When currencies of base metal were first introduced in the Islamic world, paying a debt in a higher number of units of this fiat money was not considered riba; jurists were concerned with the real value of money (determined by weight only) rather than its numerical value. For example, it was acceptable for a loan of 1000 gold dinars to be paid back as 1050 dinars of equal aggregate weight of gold (the value in terms of weight had to be same because all makes of coins did not carry exactly similar weight), therefore having the same real value.

రిబా నిషేధం[మార్చు]

ఖురాన్ లో రిబా గురించి 12 ఆయత్ ల యందు వర్ణించబడింది. రిబా అనే పదం ఎనిమిది చోట్ల వచ్చింది. 2:275 యందు మూడు సార్లు, ఒక్కొక్క మారు 2:276, 2:278, 3:130, 4:161 మరియు 30:39 లో వచ్చింది.[10]

The Mekkan verse in Surah al-Rum was the first to be revealed on the topic: And whatever Riba you give so that it may increase in the wealth of the people, it does not increase with Allah (Quran 30:39)

The other Medinan verses: And because of their charging Riba while they were prohibited from it (Quran 4:161) Those who believe do not eat up Riba doubled and redoubled (Quran 3:129-130)

Culminating with the verses in Surah Baqarah: Those who benefit from interest shall be raised like those who have been driven to madness by the touch of the Devil; this is because they say: "Trade is like interest" while God has permitted trade and forbidden interest…God deprives interest of all blessings but blesses charity.... O believers, fear God, and give up the interest that remains outstanding if you are believers. If you do not do so, then be sure of being at war with God and His messenger. But, if you repent, you can have your principal.... (Quran 2:275-280)

Jurists do not consider the first two verses as clear prohibitive verses on the matter, whereas the latter two have been understood to prohibit Muslims from riba.

Tabari quotes a number of Tabi'een, who state the verse from Surah al-Rum refers to a gift whereas al-Jawzi quotes Hasan al-Basri as stating it refers to riba.[11] Either way, there is insufficient indication from this verse that riba is prohibited, if it does indeed refer to riba.

ఖురాను మరియు హదీసుల మూలాలు[మార్చు]

ఖురాన్[మార్చు]

ఖురాన్ రిబా గురించి ఈవిధంగా సెలవిస్తుంది:

That they took riba, though they were forbidden and that they devoured men's substance wrongfully – We have prepared for those among men who reject faith a grievous punishment (ఖోరాన్ 4:161)
Those who charge riba are in the same position as those controlled by the devil's influence. This is because they claim that riba is the same as commerce. However, God permits commerce, and prohibits riba. Thus, whoever heeds this commandment from his Lord, and refrains from riba, he may keep his past earnings, and his judgement rests with God. As for those who persist in riba, they incur Hell, wherein they abide forever (ఖోరాన్ 2:275)
God condemns riba, and blesses charities. God dislikes every disbeliever, guilty. Lo! those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. O you who believe, you shall observe God and refrain from all kinds of riba, if you are believers. If you do not, then expect a war from God and His messenger. But if you repent, you may keep your capitals, without inflicting injustice, or incurring injustice. If the debtor is unable to pay, wait for a better time. If you give up the loan as a charity, it would be better for you, if you only knew. (ఖోరాన్ 2:276-280)
O you who believe, you shall not take riba, compounded over and over. Observe God, that you may succeed. (ఖోరాన్ 3:130)
And for practising riba, which was forbidden, and for consuming the people's money illicitly. We have prepared for the disbelievers among them painful retribution. (ఖోరాన్ 4:161)
The riba that is practised to increase some people's wealth, does not gain anything at God. But if people give to charity, seeking God's pleasure, these are the ones who receive their reward many fold. (ఖోరాన్ 30:39)

హదీసులలో[మార్చు]

Riba is mentioned in a number of hadith:

Jabir said that Muhammad cursed the accepter of usury and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses, and he said: They are all equal.[12]
Narrated Abu: We used to be given mixed dates (from the booty) and used to sell (barter) two Sas of those dates) for one Sa (of good dates). The Prophet said (to us), "No (bartering of) two Sas for one Sa nor two Dirhams for one Dirham is permissible", (as that is a kind of usury). (See Hadith No. 405).[13]
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: Allah's Apostle said, "The bartering of gold for silver is Riba, (usury), except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and wheat grain for wheat grain is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and barley for barley is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount.".[14]
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Muhammad said, "The selling of wheat for wheat is Riba (usury) except if it is handed from hand to hand and equal in amount. Similarly the selling of barley for barley, is Riba except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount.[15]
Narrated AbuHurayrah: Muhammad said: If anyone makes two transactions combined in one bargain, he should have the lesser of the two or it will involve usury.[16]

Additional ahadith exist regarding usury.[17]

ఇవీ చూడండి[మార్చు]

ఇస్లామిక్ బ్యాంకింగ్ విధానం[మార్చు]

భారత్ లో ఇస్లామిక్ బ్యాంకింగ్ విధానం ప్రవేశపెట్టాలనే ఆలోచన గత 20 సం. లుగా ఉంది. 2008 లో ప్రభుత్వపరంగా రిజర్వు బ్యాంకులో పలు ప్రపోజల్స్ ప్రవేశ పెట్టబడ్డాయి. ఇపుడు ఆర్.బి.ఐ. గవర్నర్ రఘురాం రాజన్, మైనారిటీ శాఖా మంత్రి రెహమాన్ ఆసక్తి వలన ఈ విధానం అమలులో జాప్యాలు తొలగిపోయాయి.[18]

నోట్సు[మార్చు]

  1. Al-Saba al-Mubiqat (السَبعَ الموبِقاتِ); as Abu Huraira said: Muhammad said, "Avoid the seven great destructive sins." The people enquire, "O Allah's Apostle! What are they? "He said, "To join others in worship along with Allah, to practice sorcery, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), to eat up riba (usury), to eat up an orphan's wealth, to give back to the enemy and fleeing from the battlefield at the time of fighting, and to accuse, chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers. [Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim]
    أخرج البخاري ومسلم وأبو داود والنسائي عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال اجتنبوا السبع الموبقات , قيل يا رسول الله وما هن ؟ قال الشرك بالله , والسحر , وقتل النفس التي حرم الله إلا بالحق , وأكل مال اليتيم , وأكل الربا , والتولي يوم الزحف , وقذف المحصنات الغافلات المؤمنات
  2. "Riba in Islam". Learndeen.com. 2008-05-29. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
  3. Last Sermon of Muhammad given on 10 Dul-hajj 10 hijra, mentioned in all book of Hadith. Sahih Bukhari mentions parts of it. Musnad Imam Ahmed recorded the longest and complete speech.
    أَلَا إِنَّ كُلَّ رِبًا كَانَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، مَوْضُوعٌ عَنْكُمْ كُلُّهُ، لَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُم لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَاتُظْلَمُونَ، وَأَوَّلُ رِبًا مَوْضُوعٍ، رِبَا الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِبِ مَوْضُوعٌ كُلُّه
  4. Quran 2:275.[al-Baqarah]
  5. Quran 2:275 [al-Baqarah]
  6. Quran 4:161 [an-Nisa]
  7. Quran 2:278 [al-baqarah]
  8. Recorded in Sahih al-Muslim
  9. Recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah
  10. Siddiqi, MN, Riba, Bank Interest and the Rationale of its Prohibition, Islamic Development Bank Islamic Research and Training Institute, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, p. 35
  11. Usmani, M T, The Historic Judgment on Interest Delivered in the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Idaratul-Ma'arif, Karachi, Pakistan, p. 21
  12. Sahih Muslim, Book 010, Number 3881
  13. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 034, Number 294
  14. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 034, Number 344
  15. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 034, Number 379
  16. Sunan Abu Daud, Book 23, Number 3454
  17. Sahih Bukhari. "Volume 3, Book 034 "Sales and Trade"". Usc.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  18. http://www.eenadu.net/news/newsitem.aspx?item=panel&no=15

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  • Badr, Gamal M. (Spring 1989). "To the Editor". The American Journal of Comparative Law. American Society of Comparative Law. 37 (2): 424–425. doi:10.2307/840180. JSTOR 840180.

బయటి లంకెలు[మార్చు]


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