|Russian: Сибирь (Sibir)|
|Borders on||West: Ural Mountains
North: Arctic Ocean
East: Pacific Ocean
South: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China
|Highest point||Klyuchevskaya Sopka|
|- ఎత్తు||4,649 m (15,253 ft)|
|వైశాల్యం||1,31,00,000 km2 (50,57,938 sq mi)|
|Density||2.7 / km2 (7 / sq mi)|
Siberia (//; Russian: Сиби́рь, tr. Sibir'; IPA: [sʲɪˈbʲirʲ] ( listen)) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of Russia since the 16th and 17th centuries.
The territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts, Western and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to just 40 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.8/sq mi) (approximately equal to that of Australia), making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest.
Worldwide, Siberia is well known primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C (−13 °F), as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, and exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir). Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the మూస:Interlanguage link multi (also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), a folk, which spoke a language that later evolved into the Ugric languages. This ethnic group was later assimilated to the Siberian Tatar people.
The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims that the region was named after the Xibe people. The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north" (север, sever), but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese, Arabs and Mongolians (who have similar names for the region) would not have known Russian. He suggests that the name is a combination of two words, "su" (water) and "bir" (wild land).
- "Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)". Encycl.yandex.ru. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- Euan Ferguson. "Trans-Siberian for softies". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). The Manchus. Peoples of Asia. 14 (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 213. ISBN 0-631-23591-4. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Czaplicka, M.C. (1915). Aboriginal Siberia.
- Baikaloff, Anatole (Dec 1950). "Notes on the origin of the name "Siberia"". Slavonic and East European Review. 29 (72): 288.