సున్తీ లేదా సున్నతి (Male circumcision) పురుషాంగానికున్న పూర్వచర్మాన్ని తొలగించడం. The word "circumcision" comes from Latin circum (meaning "around") and cædere (meaning "to cut"). Early depictions of circumcision are found in cave paintings and Ancient Egyptian tombs, though some pictures are open to interpretation. Religious male circumcision is considered a commandment from God in Judaism. In Islam, though not discussed in the Qur'an, male circumcision is widely practised and most often considered to be a sunnah. It is also customary in some Christian churches in Africa, including some Oriental Orthodox Churches.
ప్రపంచ ఆరోగ్య సంస్థ (WHO), అంచనాల ప్రకారం ప్రపంచంలో సుమారు 30% మంది పురుషులు సున్తీ చేసుకొంటూ ఉంటే, అందులో సుమారు 68% మంది ముస్లింలు. ఈ అంచనాలు ఆయా దేశాల మతం మీద ఆధారపడుతుంది. మతపరమైన సున్తీ యౌవనం ప్రారంభంలో చేస్తారు; కానీ కొన్ని దేశాలలో పుట్టిన వెంటనే జరపడం ఆచారంగా
ఉంది. కొన్ని రకాల వ్యాధులలో శస్త్రచికిత్సా విధానంగా కూడా కొంతమందిలో సున్తీ చేస్తారు.
- ↑ Dictionary definitions of circumcision:
- "The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) 
- "to remove the foreskin of (males) sometimes as a religious rite." The Macquarie Dictionary (2nd Edition, 1991)
- "Cut off foreskin of (as Jewish or Mohammedan rite, or surgically), Concise Oxford Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1964
- "Male circumcision is the surgical removal of all or part of the foreskin of the penis." Information Package on Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention:Insert 1, World Health Organization
- "Circumcision, surgical removal of all or part of the foreskin of the human male...", "Circumcision", Microsoft Encarta, 2007.
- "Male circumcision is an elective surgery to remove the foreskin..." Circumcision, British Columbia Health Guide, June 2, 2006. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- "Circumcision is surgery..." Pain and Your Infant: Medical Procedures, Circumcision and Teething, University of Michigan Health System, February 2007. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- " Circumcision is cutting away part of the foreskin... When this surgery is performed..." Newborn Care Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback Machine, Danbury Hospital website. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- ↑ Hodges, F.M. (2001). "The ideal prepuce in ancient Greece and Rome: male genital aesthetics and their relation to lipodermos, circumcision, foreskin restoration, and the kynodesme". The Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 75 (3): 375–405. doi:10.1353/bhm.2001.0119. PMID 11568485.
- ↑ Wrana, P. (1939). "Historical review: Circumcision". Archives of Pediatrics. 56: 385–392. as quoted in: Zoske, Joseph (1998). "Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective". The Journal of Men's Studies. 6 (2): 189–208. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Gollaher, David L. (2000). Circumcision: A History of the World’s Most Controversial Surgery. New York, NY: Basic Books. pp. 53–72. ISBN 978-0-465-04397-2.
- ↑ "Circumcision". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 2006-10-03.
- ↑ Genesis 17:9–14 Bible: http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+17:9-14&version=NIV
- ↑ Rizvi, S.A.H.; A Naqvi, S.A.; Hussain, M.; Hasan, A.S. (1999). "Religious circumcision: a Muslim view". BJU International. 83: 13–6. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1013.x. PMID 10349409.
- ↑ Customary in some Coptic and other churches:
- "The Coptic Christians in Egypt and the Ethiopian Orthodox Christians —two of the oldest surviving forms of Christianity— retain many of the features of early Christianity, including male circumcision. Circumcision is not prescribed in other forms of Christianity.…Some Christian churches in South Africa oppose the practice, viewing it as a pagan ritual, while others, including the Nomiya church in Kenya, require circumcision for membership and participants in focus group discussions in Zambia and Malawi mentioned similar beliefs that Christians should practice circumcision since Jesus was circumcised and the Bible teaches the practice." Male Circumcision: context, criteria and culture (Part 1), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, February 26, 2007.
- "The decision that Christians need not practice circumcision is recorded in Acts 15; there was never, however, a prohibition of circumcision, and it is practiced by Coptic Christians." "circumcision", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–5.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 "Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- ↑ Schmid GP, Dick B. (2008). "Adolescent boys: who cares?" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (9): 659. doi:10.2471/BLT.08.057752. PMC 2649485. PMID 18797635.
- ↑ Huang, Craig J (2009). "Problems of the foreskin and glans penis" (Abstract). Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 10 (1): 56–59. doi:10.1016/j.cpem.2009.01.009.[permanent dead link]