భారతీయ ఇతిహాస కాలం నాటి వృక్ష జాతులు

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భారతీయ ఇతిహాసం కాలం నాటి వృక్ష సంపదను తెలుసుకోవడానికి పురాతన కాల ప్రమాణిక రికార్డులు లేని భారతీయ ఇతిహాసాలలోని సంఘటనలు పురాతనత్వం అధ్యయనం చేయడం వంటివి సాధనాలుగా ఉన్నాయి. ఈ వృక్ష సంపద దేశీయంగా ఒక ప్రదేశం లేక ఒక కాలానికి సంబంధించిన ప్రత్యేకంగా సహజంగా పుట్టిన వృక్ష జాతులకు సంబంధించినవి.

మనిషి మరియు పర్యావరణం[మార్చు]

Place of excavation Carbon-dating finding
Atnur (South India) 2300 BC Neolithic culture
Eran & Navadatoli (Madhya Pradesh) 2300 BC-1400 BC Central Indian culture
Kalibangan (Rajasthan) and Lothal (Gujarat) 2100 BC Harappan culture
Ahar (Rajasthan) 1800 BC-1300 BC Banas culture
Newasa and Chandoli (Maharashtra) 1300 BC-1100 BC Chalkolithic culture

వేద సంస్కృతి[మార్చు]

ఔషధ మొక్కలు[మార్చు]

పౌరాణిక సాహిత్యం[మార్చు]

రామాయణ మహాకావ్యంలోని వృక్ష జాతులు[మార్చు]

రామాయణంలోని మొక్కల జాబితా (A-L సంస్కృత పేర్ల ప్రకారం)[మార్చు]

Sanskrit name of plant (Devanagari) Botanical name Indian names Indian epic Sarga Shloka Location in epics Habit Present Habitat
Agnimukha (अग्निमुख) Semecarpus anacardium Hindi:Bhilawa, Bhela, Bhallaataka English:Marking nut, Oriental cashee Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.5 Matanga hermitage
Moderate size Deciduous tree
Found in the outer Himalayas, Common in dry or moist deciduous forests
Ankola (अन्कोल) Alangium salvifolium Ankola Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake Tall thorny tree Found in భారత దేశము, Western Africa, Madagascar, Southern Asia, Philippines and tropical Australia, and the Pacific Islands
Arjuna (अर्जुन) Terminalia arjuna Indian:Arjuna, Arjunasaadaddaa, Sanmadat, Vellamarda, Sadaru, Kahu, Shardul Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake
A large evergreen tree
Indigenous in Africa and Indo-Malaysia region. Cultivated all over భారత దేశము
Ashoka (अशोक) Saraca asoca Ashoka Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.79 Pampa Lake
A middle sized evergreen tree
Cultivated ingargens throughout భారత దేశము
Ashoka (अशोक) Saraca asoca Banjuldruma Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
Ashoka (अशोक) Saraca indica Ashoka Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.17 Panchavati
Ashoka (अशोक) Saraca asoca Ashoka Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
Ashoka (अशोक) Saraca asoca Ashoka Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.5 Matanga hermitage
Ashvakarna (अश्वकर्ण) Vateria indica Hindi:Dhupa, Ralla English:Indian Copal, White dammar, Piney varnish Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha provinces
A large, elegant, evergreen tree
Western India, chiefly in evergreen forests, but also occasionally along rivers in deciduous forests
Ashwakarna (अश्वकर्ण) Vateria indica Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Aśvattha (अश्वत्थ) Ficus religiosa Pipal, Pimpalla, Bodhi Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
A large or middle sized deciduous tree
Sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh. Planted elsewhere
Badari (बदरी) Zizyphus mauritiana Indian: Ber, Bora Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.16 Malada and Karusha
A small tree or large shrub usually armed
Common in hotter parts of India, cultivated in gardens or found wild in waste places
Banjula (वञ्जुल) Saraca asoca Ashoka Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
Bansha (बांस) Dendrocalamus strictus Bamboo, bansalochana Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.21 Panchavati Found from the Indian subcontinent throughout Southeast Asia
Bilva (बिल्वा) Aegle marmelos Hindi:Bel, English Bael fruit tree Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
A middle sized slender aromatic armed tree
Indigenous to dry forests on hills and plains of central and southern భారత దేశము, southern Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. It is cultivated throughout India, as well as in Sri Lanka, northern Malay Peninsula, Java and in the Philippines.
Bilva (बिल्वा) Aegle marmelos Bel Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
Bilva (बिल्वा) Aegle marmelos Bel Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
Bilva (बिल्वा) Aegle marmelos Bel Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha
Champaka (चम्पक) Michelia champaca Champa Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
A large or middle sized evergreen tree
Native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Champaka (चम्पक) Michelia champaca - Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.17 Panchavati
Chandana (चंदन) Santalum album Indian:Chandana, English:Sandalwood Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
A small or middle sized evergreen semi-parasitic tree
Occurring in semi-arid areas from భారత దేశము to the South Pacific and the northern coast of Australia. Originally endemic to eastern Indonesia, northern Australia and tropical areas of the భారత దేశముn peninsula. It is now indigenous to deciduous, dry forests of China, భారత దేశము, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines and Northwestern Australia, although the extent of human dispersal to these regions is not known.
Chandana (चंदन) Santalum album Sandalwood Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Chūta (चूत) Mangifera indica Mango Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake
A middle sized evergreen tree
A common tree all over India cultivated for its delicious fruits
Chūta (चूत) Mangifera indica Indian: Aam, Aamba, Aamra, Amb English:Mango Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.17 Panchavati
Chūta (चूत) Mangifera indica Mango Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
Devadaru (देवदारु) Cedrus deodara Deodar trees Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 4-43-13 Himalayas
It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40-50 m tall, exceptionally 60 m, with a trunk up to 3 m diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets
Native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, north-central India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Kashmir), southwesternmost Tibet and western Nepal.
Devasakha (देवसख) - - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 4-43-17 Himalayas
Dhanva (धन्व) Mimusops elengi Bakulla Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
A small to large sized evergreen tree
Found in tropical forests in South Asia, South east Asia & Northern Australia. In India found throughout in wet, damp and marshy areas
Dhava (धव) Anogeissus latifolia Hindi: Dhavda, Bakli , Dhau , Dhawa, Dhawra, Dhaora English: Axlewood, Thai:Takhian-nu, Vietnamese:Raam Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake A small to medium-sized tree Native to the భారత దేశము, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka
Dhava (धव) Anogeissus latifolia Dhawada Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Dhava (धव) Anogeissus latifolia Dhawada Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha
Hintāla (हिन्ताल) Cycas circinalis Hindi:Jangli madan mast ka phool, Malayalam: Eentu, Eentinpana Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.83 Pampa Lake
A moderate sized beautiful palm
Growing naturally throughout south భారత దేశము
Jambū (जंबू) Syzygium cumini Indian:Jāmun, Jambul, English:Jambolan, Black Plum Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
A large evergreen tree
Throughout భారత దేశము
Kadamba (कदंब) Anthocephalus cadamba Kadamba Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
A large evergreen tropical tree
Native to South and Southeast Asia
Karavira (करवीर) Nerium indicum Kannhera Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
An evergreen shrub or small tree
It is native to a broad area from Morocco and Portugal eastward through the Mediterranean region and southern Asia to Yunnan in southern parts of China.
Karnikara (कर्णिकार) Cassia fistula Hindi: Amaltas English:Golden Shower, Indian laburnum, Drumstick tree Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.73 Pampa Lake
A medium sized deciduous tree
Native to southern Asia, from southern Pakistan east through భారత దేశము to Myanmar and south to Sri Lanka.
Karnikāra (कर्णिकार) Cassia fistula Amaltas Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 4-40-56 Udaya Mountain
Karnikāra (कर्णिकार) Cassia fistula Amaltas Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
Kāsha (काश) Saccharum spontaneum Kans grass Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.22 Panchavati
A perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height.
Native to south Asia.
Ketaka (केतक) Pandanus tectorius - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake
A tree that grows to 4–14 metres
Occurring from near Port Macquarie in New South Wales to northern Queensland, Australia and Indonesia east through the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean to Hawaii
Ketaka (केतक) Pandanus tectorius - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.7 & 4.42.11 Surashtra, Bahlika and Chandrachitra provinces - -
Ketaka (केतक) Pandanus tectorius - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.11 Cities Murachi, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa - -
Ketakī (केतकी) Pandanus tectorius Kewada Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.77 Pampa Lake - -
Ketakī (केतकी) Pandanus tectorius Kewda Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.17 Panchavati
A densely branched shrub rarely erect
Seacoast of Indian Peninsula, Port Macquarie in New South Wales to northern Queensland, Australia and Indonesia east through the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean to Hawaii
Khadira (खदिर) Acacia catechu Hindi: Khair, Khadira English: Cutch, Catechu, Cachou, Black Cutch Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
A moderate sized deciduous, thorny tree
It is found in Asia, China, North Africa, Naturalized in all drier parts of భారత దేశము.
Kharjūra (खर्जूर) Phoenix dactylifera Hindi:खजूर, Pindakhajur, English:Date Palm Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
A medium-sized tree
Originated somewhere in the desert oases of northern Africa, and perhaps also southwest Asia. Cultivated in many parts of భారత దేశము.
Kichaka Venu (कीचक वेणू) Bambusa arundinacea English:Spiny bamboo, Hindi:Kaantaa baans (काँटा बांस) Mahabharata Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 4.43.37 Where River Sailoda flows
A graceful spinous perennial erect herb
Wild throughout భారత దేశము especially in hill forests.
Kimshuka (किंशुक) Butea monosperma Indian: Palas, Dhak, Khakara, Kakracha English:Flame of the Forest, Bastard tree, Parrot Tree Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.75 Pampa Lake
A medium sized deciduous tree with somewhat crooked trunk
Native to tropical southern Asia, from Pakistan, భారత దేశము, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and western Indonesia. Common Throughout భారత దేశము
Kinshuka (किंशुक) Butea monosperma Palas Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
Kinshuka (किंशुक) Butea monosperma Palas Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Kovidāra (कोविदार) Bauhinia variegata Kachanār Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake
A small to medium-sized tree
Dry forests in భారత దేశము
Kukubha (ककुभ) Terminalia arjuna Arjuna Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha
A large evergreen tree
Indigenous in Africa and Indo-Malaysia region. Cultivated all over భారత దేశము
Kurantaka (कुरण्टक) Barleria prionitis Hindi:Vajradanti, Koraanti-piwali, Katsareya Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake
A much branched prickly shrub with yellow flowers
Occurs throuout the hotter parts of India. A common undershrub occasionally found wild but generally cultivated for hedge or ornamental purpose
Kurvaka (कुरवक) Lawsonia inermis Hindi:Mehandi, Mendee English:Henna, Hina, Egyptian privet Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
A globrous much branched shrub or small tree
It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, southern Asia, and northern Australasia in semi-arid zones. Cultivated and naturalized all over India for its leaves
Kusha (कुश) Desmostachya bipinnata Darbha, Kusha Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.22 Panchavati A tall tufted perennial grass Throughout India in hot and dry places
Kūṭaśālmalī (कूटशाल्मली) Ceiba pentandra Kapok tree Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 4.40.39 Eastern side of the Jambudvipa
The tree grows to 70 m tall, has a very substantial trunk up to 3 m in diameter with buttresses. The trunk and many of the larger branches are densely crowded with very large, robust simple thorns
Native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa.
Lakuch (लकुच) Artocarpus hirsutus Hindi: Vadahar, English:Wild jack, Malayalam :Ayani, Aanjili Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati An evergreen tall tree In evergreen forests of Western Ghats, also cultivated for timber
Lodhra (लोध्र) Symplocos racemosa Indian:Lodhra, Lodh, English:Lodhra tree, Cinchona Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.79 Pampa Lake A middle sized evergreen tree or shrub China, South Asia, Throughout N.E.India, Occasionally in Konkan along river sides and hill slopes
Lodhra (लोध्र) Symplocos racemosa Indian:Lodhra, Lodh, English:Lodhra tree, Cinchona Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 4.43.13 Himalayas A middle sized evergreen tree or shrub China, South Asia, Throughout N.E.India, Occasionally in Konkan along river sides and hill slopes

రామాయణంలోని మొక్కల జాబితా (M-Z సంస్కృత పేర్ల ప్రకారం)[మార్చు]

Sanskrit name of plant (Devanagari) Botanical name Indian names Indian epic Sarga Shloka Location in epics Habit Present Habitat
Mādhavi (माधवी) Gaertnera racemosa Indian:Vāsantī, Madhumalati, Haladvel, Madahavilataa Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.77 Pampa Lake A large handsome evergreen climbing shrub Found throughout the warmer parts of Maharashtra, Konkan, Karnataka, and other parts of భారత దేశము
Madhuka (मधूका) Madhuca indica Mahuwa, Oriya: Mahuli (ମହୁଲି) Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
An Indian tropical, middle sized to large deciduous tree
Found largely in the central and north Indian plains and forests, forests of western India, and Konkan
Madhūka (मधूका) Madhuca indica Mahuwa Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
Mālatī (मालती) Jasminum sambac Common names include Arabian Jasmine, Full (فل) (Arabic),Jaai/( ଜାଇ) (Oriya), Bel/Beli (Bengali), Mogra (Hindi and Marathi), Mallikā (Sanskrit), Kampupot, Melati (Malay and Indonesian Language), Sampaguita (Filipino), Mallepuvvu (Telugu), Mallikaipu (Tamil), dundu Mallige (Kannada) and Kaliyan (Urdu). Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.76 Pampa Lake
A large scrambling or twining shrub
Native to southeast and southern Asia, in Indonesia, the Philippines, భారత దేశము, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.
Malati (मालती) Jasminum grandiflorum Indian: Chameli, Jati, English:Common Jasmine, Spanish Jasmine Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.76 Pampa Lake
A large scrambling or twining shrub
Native of N.H. Himalayas, wildly grown throughout భారత దేశము
Mallikā (मल्लिका) Jasminum grandiflorum Chameli Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.76 Pampa Lake a scandent or sub-erect woody perennial shrub Cultivated as an ornamental shrub throughout భారత దేశము
Muchukunda (मुचुकुंद) Pterospermum suberifolium Indian:Muchukunda, Muchakunda Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake A small to medium size tree Found in forests of Karnataka and తమిళనాడు
Nāga (नाग) Mesua ferrea Indian:Nāgachampa, Naagakeshara, Naagachaafaa, English:Mesua, Ceylon ironwood, Indian rose chestnut, Cobra's saffron or locally, Penaga Lilin, Na (Sinhalese) or Nahar/Nahor Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
A middle or large size evergreen tree with short trunk
It is native to tropical Sri Lanka but also cultivated in southern Nepal, Indochina, and the Malay Peninsula. Found in Assam, eastern Himalayas, West Bengal, eastern and Western Ghats.
Nāga (नाग) Mesua ferrea Nāgachampa Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.83 Pampa Lake
Nāga (नाग) Mesua ferrea Nāgachampa Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
Naktamāla (नक्तमाल) Pongamia pinnata Indian:Karanja, kiramal, Kidamar, English: Indian beech, Pongamia oil tree Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
A middle sized glabrous tree
Originated in India and is found throughout Asia. native of western ghats. Found all over India on banks of rivers and streams
Naktamāla (नक्तमाल) Pongamia pinnata Karanj Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
Nārikela (नारिकेल) Cocos nucifera Coconut Palm Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.11 Cities Murachi, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa
A large palm, growing to 30 m tall
Throughout the tropics
Nīla (नील) Ficus bengalensis Plaksha, Bengal fig, Indian fig, East Indian fig, Indian Banyan or simply Banyan, also borh, nyagrodha and wad or Vad/Vat Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.79 Pampa Lake
A very large tree with many aerial roots
Endemic to Bangladesh, భారత దేశము and Sri Lanka. Found in Sub-Himalayas tract abd western peninsula, planted elsewhere.
Nīla (नील) Ficus bengalensis Banyan Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
Nīpa (नीप) Barringtonia racemosa Indian:Samudraphalla, sadphali, Nivar, English:Small Indian Oak Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
A moderate or small size tree, with brown, somewhat fibrous bark
Western sea coast of భారత దేశము
Nyagrodha (न्यग्रोध) Ficus bengalensis Banyan Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
Padma (पद्म) Nelumbo nucifera Hindi:Kamal, English:Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.76 Pampa Lake
A handsome aquatic herb
Native of China, Japan, and భారత దేశము. Grown throughout warmer parts of భారత దేశము
Padmaka (पद्मक) Prunus cerasoides Himalayan wild cherry Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.79 Pampa Lake Found in East Asia.Its range extends in the Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh in India to southwest China and Burma.
Padmaka (पद्मक) Prunus cerasoides Himalayan wild cherry Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 4.43.13 Himalayas Found in East Asia.Its range extends in the Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh in India to southwest China and Burma.
Panasa (पनस) Artocarpus heterophyllus Indian:Hindi: Kat-hal (कटहल), Oriya: Panasa(ପଣସ), Phannasa, English: Jack-fruit Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
A large evergreen tree
Native to parts of South and Southeast Asia. Indigenous to భారత దేశము, grows wild in Western Ghats.
Panasa (पनस) Artocarpus heterophyllus Jackfruit Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
Panasa (पनस) Artocarpus heterophyllus Jackfruit Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
Paribhadraka (परिभद्रक) Erythrina indica Indian:Pāngārā, Dadap, Mandar, Ferrud, Panara, English:Tiger's Claw, Indian Coral Tree and Sunshine Tree Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.5 Matanga hermitage
A middle sized quick-growing tree
Wild in deciduous forests throughout భారత దేశము. Native to the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Africa, southern Asia, northern Australia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean east to Fiji.
Pāribhadraka (पारिभद्रक) Erythrina indica Pāngārā Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake
Parnasa (पर्णास) Ocimum sanctum Tulasī (तुलसी‌) in Sanskrit, (तुलसी‌) in Nepali, (ତୁଳସୀ/Tul`asi) in Oriya, (‌তুলসী) in Bengali, (तुळस) in Marathi, (तुलसी‌) in Hindi, tulasi (తులసి) in Telugu, (തുളസി) in Malayalam, (துளசி) in Tamil, (ತುಳಸಿ) in Kannada, Maduruthala in Sinhalese Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
An erect herbaceous, much-branched, softly hairy aromatic annual
Tulsi is native throughout the Old World tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed.cultivated throughout భారత దేశము.
Pāṭalā (पाटला) Stereospermum chelonoides Indian :Padhala, Adakapari, Padari, Paral, Kirsel, Koosga, Tuatuka, English:Trumpet flower, Yellow snake tree, Malayalam : Patiri, Poopatiri Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake A large deciduous tree Throughout India, growing in deciduous forests. Konkan on slopes of hills, in moist deciduous or evergreen forests
Pāṭalā (पाटला) Stereospermum chelonoides Padari Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Pāṭalā (पाटला) Stereospermum chelonoides Padari Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha
Pippali (पिप्पली) Piper longum Indian:Pimpalli, Pipal, Pipli, Piplamul, English:Indian long peppere, Javanese, Indian or Indonesian Long Pepper Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
A slender aromatic climber with perennial woody roots
Hotter parts of భారత దేశము
Plaksha (प्लक्ष) Ficus religiosa Hindi: Pakar, Malayalam : Ithi, English: Sacred fig, Fig tree Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
A large evergreen tree with few aerial roots
Native to భారత దేశము, Nepal, Sri Lanka, southwest China and Indochina east to Vietnam.
Priyāla (प्रियाल) Buchanania lanzan Hindi: Chironji (चिरौन्जी), Oriya-Westren- Chanhar (ଚାଂହାର), Piyal, Achar, Marathi: चारोळी, English:Almondi tree Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
An evergreen tree with a straight, cylindrical trunk
Common throughout India in dry or moist deciduous forests or in semi evergreen forests
Punnāga (पुन्नाग) Calophyllum inophyllum Indian:Undi, Undala, Unang, Surangi, Surpunka, Sultan champa, English: Alexandrian Laurel, Tamil:Pinnai Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
A middle sized evergreen sub-marine tree
It is native from East Africa, southern coastal భారత దేశము to Malesia and Australia. Coastal regions and littoral forest of భారత దేశము and grown as an ornamental tree.
Punnāga (पुन्नाग) Calophyllum inophyllum - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.7 Surashtra, Bahlika and Chandrachitra provinces - -
Pūrnaka (पूर्णक) NA NA Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.80 Pampa Lake
Raktā रक्ता Rubia cordifolia Indian Madder Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake Throughout భారత దేశము in hilly districts, Konkan
Sāla (साल) Vateria indica Hindi:Dhupa, Ralla English:Indian Copal, White dammar, Piney varnish, Kannada: ಧೂಪದ ಮರ Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 3.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage
A large, elegant, evergreen tree
Western India, chiefly in evergreen forests, but also occasionally along rivers in deciduous forests
Sala (साल) Vateria indica - Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
Sala (साल) Vateria indica - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 4.40.56 Udaya Mountain
Śalmalī (शाल्मली) Bombax ceiba Indian:Semal (सेमल), Shaalmali, kaantisenbal, huttian, laala-saanwar, Kate-sawar, Nurma, Deokapaas, Shimal, Savari, Shembal English:cotton tree or tree cotton Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
A lofty, deciduous tree buttressed at the base
Throughout hotter parts of భారత దేశము. The tree is widely planted in Malay, Indonesia, south China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
Shami (शमी) Prosopis cineraria Ghaf (United Arab Emirates), Khejri, Jant/Janti, Sangri (Rajasthan), jand (Punjabi), kandi (Sind), Banni (Kannada), Vanni (Tamil), sami, sumri (Gujarat). Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
A small to medium size tree
Occurs in the dry and arid regions of భారత దేశము. It is one of the chief indigenous trees of the plains of the Punjab, Western Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bundelkhand, Delhi, Agra, dry parts of Central and Southern India, Maharashtra (near Nasik), Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka (south of Godavari). Occurs in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.
Shamī (शमी) Prosopis cineraria Khejdi Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.22 Panchavati
Sanjīvanī (संजीवनी) Selaginella bryopteris Sanjīvanī Ramayan Yuddha Kanda Sarga 89 6.89.16 Mt. Dronagiri (Himalayas) Grows on the hills of tropical areas, particularly the Arawali mountain terrains from east to west in India.
Śimśupa (शिंशुप) Dalbergia latifolia sanskrit:Simsipa, Sinsipa, Krishnasara, Gurusara, Krishnasimsapa, English : Rose wood, Indian rose wood, Black wood Hindi : Shisham, Sitsal, Malayalam : Eeti, Kariveeti, Veeti Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake A large sized tree Growing naturally in wet deciduous forests of Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala, in భారత దేశము.
Sindhuvara (सिन्धुवार) Vitex negundo English: Five-leaved chaste tree, Hindi: Nirgundi, Nirguddi, Sambhalu, Shivari, Nisida, Nigudi Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.77 Pampa Lake
A large aromatic shrub or small tree
Throughout భారత దేశము in warmer zones
Śiriśa (शिरीष) Albizzia lebbeck Indian:Siras, Shirisha, Kala-siris, Chichola, Chichwa Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake A large, erect, unarmed deciduous, spreading tree A road-side tree common throughout భారత దేశము
Supuṣpī (सुपुष्पी) Clitoria ternatea English: Butterfly pea, blue pea vine, mussel-shell climber, pigeon wings, Aparājitā(ଅପରାଜିତା) in Oriya, Bengali/ Hindi:Aparājitā, Malayalam:Sankhupushpam, ശംഖുപുഷ്പം, Marathi:Gokarna, Sanskrit:Aparajita, saukarnika, ardrakarni, girikarnika, supuspi, mohanasini, vishadoshaghni, Tamil:Sangu pu Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.77 Pampa Lake
A pretty perennial twiner with blue or white flowers
A common garden plant;also occurs among hedges all over భారత దేశము. Native to tropical equatorial Asia, but has been introduced to Africa, Australia and the New World.
Surakta (सुरक्त) Pterocarpus santalinus English:Red sandalwood, Red Sanders, Indian: Rakta chandana, Laal chandan Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.5 Matanga hermitage
A tall deciduous tree
It is mainly found in south India particularly in Kadapa and Chittoor on the తమిళనాడు and Andhra Pradesh border and neighbouring areas of Karnataka, తమిళనాడు and Maharashtra.
Syandana (स्यंदन) Lagerstroemia speciosa English: Queen crape, Myrtle, Pride of India, Indian: Taaman, Jarul, Mota-bondara Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
A small to medium-sized deciduous tree
It is grown in South East Asia, భారత దేశము and the Philippines. It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. In India found in Western and Eastern Ghats; Assam; Chittagong, Chota Nagpur.
Syandana (स्यंदन) Lagerstroemia speciosa Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.18 Panchavati
Tāla (ताल) Borassus flabellifer English: Asian palmyra palm, Toddy palm, Sugar palm, Cambodian palm, Palmyra, Ice-apple, Indian: Taad (ताड), Tala ( ତାଳ) (Oriya), Tari (Hindi), Tal (Bengali), Nungu (Tamil), Thaati/Munjalu (Telugu), Munjal (Urdu), Tnaot (Khmer), Lontar(Indonesian), Akadiru (East Timorese), Tao (Divehi), Tadfali (Gujarati), Targula (Konkani) . Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
A very tall, erect, magnificent dioecious palm
Grows all over the country. It is also common in Thailand, especially in the northeast or Isaan province.
Tāla (ताल) Borassus flabellifer Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 4.40.53/56 Udaya Mountain - -
Tāla (ताल) Borassus flabellifer Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.46 Between Mt. Meru and Mt. Astaadri - -
Tamāla (तमाल) Garcinia hanburyi Indian:Tamal, English:Gambojia, Gamboge, Indian Gamboge tree Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati A small or middle sized evergreen tree Siam, Cochin, China, In the evergreen forests of Assam and Khasi hills
Tamāla (तमाल) Garcinia hanburyi - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 4-40-56 Udaya Mountain -
Tamāla (तमाल) Garcinia hanburyi - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.11 Cities Murachi, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa - -
Tilaka (तिलक) Cinnamomum iners English :cassia bark, Cinnamum, Hindi :Daalachini, Tejpat, Tamaal saala Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
A middle sized tree
Cultivated in భారత దేశము, Found in Burma and China.
Tilaka (तिलक) Cinnamomum iners - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.83 Pampa Lake
Tilaka (तिलक) Cinnamomum iners - Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.17 Panchavati
Tilaka (तिलक) Cinnamomum iners - Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.4 Matanga hermitage
Tinduka (तिन्दुक) Diospyros melanoxylon English:Indian persimon, Indian: Tendu, Gabh, Tedu, Tembhurnnee, Tenddu, Timburi, Oriya: Kendu (କେନ୍ଦୁ) Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 4.11.74 Agastya’s hermitage A middle sized evergreen tree Throughout భారత దేశము.
Tinduka (तिन्दुक) Diospyros melanoxylon Tendu Ramayan Bala Kanda Sarga 24 1.24.15 Malada and Karusha
Tinduka (तिन्दुक) Diospyros melanoxylon Tendu Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 3.73.3 Matanga hermitage
Tiniśa (तिनिश) Lagerstroemia speciosa English: Queen crape, Myrtle, Pride of India, Indian: Taaman, Jarul, Mota-bondara Ramayan Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 3.15.16 Panchavati
A small to medium-sized deciduous tree
It is grown in South East Asia, భారత దేశము and the Philippines. It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. In India found in Western and Eastern Ghats; Assam; Chittagong, Chota Nagpur.
Tinisha (तिनिश) Lagerstroemia speciosa - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.82 Pampa Lake
Uddālaka (उद्दालक) Cordia myxa Indian:Lasora, Bhokara, Shelvant, English: Assyrian plum, Sebeston plum, Large sebestan Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.81 Pampa Lake A medium-sized broad-leaved deciduous tree In the Indian subcontinent, it is seen coming up naturally and growing abundantly from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West
Uddālaka (उद्दालक) Cordia myxa - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.7 Surashtra, Bahlika and Chandrachitra provinces - -
Vakula (वकुल) Mimusops elengi Indian:Vakula, Bakulla, Maulsari, Ovalli Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.78 Pampa Lake
A small to large sized evergreen tree
Found in tropical forests in South Asia, South east Asia & Northern Australia. In India found throughout in wet, damp and marshy areas
Vakula (वकुल) Mimusops elengi - Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 4.42.7 Surashtra, Bahlika and Chandrachitra provinces - -
Vāsantī (वासन्ती Hiptage benghalensis Indian:Vāsantī, Madhumalati, Haladvel, Madahavilataai Ramayan Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 4.1.77 Pampa Lake A large handsome evergreen climbing shrub Found throughout the warmer parts of Maharashtra, Konkan, Karnataka, and other parts of భారత దేశము

మహాభారత ఇతిహాసంలోని వృక్ష జాతులు[మార్చు]

శమీవృక్ష పురాణగాథ[మార్చు]

మహాభారతంలోని మొక్కల జాబితా (A-L సంస్కృత పేర్ల ప్రకారం)[మార్చు]

Sanskrit name of plant (Devanagari) Botanical name Indian names Indian epic Parvaa Shloka Location in epics Habit Present Habitat
Amrataka आम्रातक Spondias pinnata English:Bile tree, Wild Mango, Hindi:Aambaada, Jungli Aam Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.59 Sarasvati River A middle sized deciduous glabrous tree below 15 m. Common tree all over in wild as well as in cultivation
Arimeda अरिमेद Acacia farnesiana Hindi:Devabaabhulla, Gandha babul, Kankar, Vilayati kikar, English:Needle Bush Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war
A thorni bush or small tree
Native to Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating Northern Australia and Southern Asia. Grown throughout భారత దేశము, often planted in gardens
Ashtapadika आष्टापदिक Vallaris dichotoma Padika, Bhardravalli, Bhadramunja Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.6 King Kusika country on the banks of the Ganges belonging to the Gandharvas
Asoka अशोक Saraca asoca Ashoka Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country
A middle sized evergreen tree
Cultivated ingargens throughout భారత దేశము
Aswattha अश्वत्थ Ficus religiosa Pipal, Pimpalla, Bodhi Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.3.58, XIII.4.27 Sarasvati River
A large or middle sized deciduous tree
Sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh. Planted elsewhere
Atimukta अतिमुक्तक Hiptage benghalensis Hindi:Madhumalati, Madhumaalati, Vāsantī, Haladvel, Madahavilataa Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.60 Sarasvati River A large handsome evergreen climbing shrub Found throughout the warmer parts of Maharashtra, Konkan, Karnataka, and other parts of భారత దేశము
Atimukta Hiptage benghalensis - Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country - -
Badari बदरी Zizyphus mauritiana Indian: Ber, Bora Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River
A small tree or large shrub usually armed
Common in hotter parts of India, cultivated in gardens or found wild in waste places
Badari बदरी Zizyphus mauritiana Indian: Ber, Bora Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war - -
Badari बदरी Zizyphus mauritiana Indian: Ber, Bora Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River - -
Bhavya भव्य Dillenia indica Sanskrit:Bhava, Bhavya, Bhavishya, Bhavan, Vaktrashodhan, Pichchilbeeja English:Sandpaper tree Hindi: Malayalam: Kudapunna, Pattipunna, Neitekku, Bengali:chalta, Assamese:outenga Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country
An evergreen large shrub or small to medium-sized tree growing to 15 m
Throughout భారత దేశము growing wild, Native to southeastern Asia, from India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka east to southwestern China (Yunnan) and Vietnam, and south through Thailand to Malaysia and Indonesia
Bilva बिल्वा Aegle marmelos Bel Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River
A middle sized slender aromatic armed tree
Indigenous central and southern భారత దేశము, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. It is cultivated throughout India, Sri Lanka, Malay Peninsula, Java and Philippines.
Bilwa Aegle marmelos - Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.3.59 Sarasvati River - -
Champaka चम्पक Michelia champaca Champa Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country
A large or middle sized evergreen tree
Native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Champaka चम्पक Michelia champaca - Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war - -
Dhava धव Anogeissus latifolia Hindi: Dhavda, Bakli, Dhau, Dhawa, Dhawra, Dhaora English: Axlewood, Thai:Takhian-nu, Vietnamese:Raam Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country A small to medium-sized tree Native to the భారత దేశము, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka
Inguda इङ्गुद Balanites roxburghii English:Desert date, Indian:Hinganbet, Ingudi, Hingoli, Hingun Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A spiny, evergreen tree
Common in open sandy plains of Indian peninsula, western Rajasthan, west Bengal, Maharashtra and drier parts of భారత దేశము
Inguda इङ्गुद Balanites roxburghii - Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River - -
Ingudi इङ्गुद Balanites roxburghii - Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war - -
Karira करीर Capparis decidua kerda, kair, karir, kirir, karril Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A small much branched tree or shrub
arid regions in Africa, Middle East and southern Asia, including the Thar desert.
Karira करीर Capparis decidua - Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River - -
Karira करीर Capparis decidua - Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 -Kurukshetra war-
Karira करीर Capparis decidua - Mahabharata Karna Parva VIII.30.24 Kuru-Jangal country - -
Karnikara कर्णिकार Cassia fistula Hindi: Amaltas English:Golden Shower, Indian laburnum, Drumstick tree Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country
A medium sized deciduous tree
Native to southern Asia, from southern Pakistan east through భారత దేశము to Myanmar and south to Sri Lanka.
Kashanda कषण्ड NA NA Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.60 Sarasvati River
Kashmarya काश्मर्य Berberis vulgaris English:European barberry, Indian:Kashmal Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
It is a deciduous shrub growing up to 4 m high.
Native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia; it is also naturalised in northern Europe, and North America.
Ketaka केतक Pandanus tectorius Indian: Kewada, Ktetaki, Keura, Gagandhul Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country
A densely branched shrub rarely erect
Seacoast of Indian Peninsula
Khadira खदिर Acacia catechu Hindi: Khair, Khadira English: Cutch, Catechu, Cachou, Black Cutch Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River
A moderate sized deciduous, thorny tree
It is found in Asia, China, North Africa, Naturalized in all drier parts of భారత దేశము.
Kovidāra कोविदार Bauhinia variegata Kachanār Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war
A small to medium-sized tree
Dry forests in భారత దేశము
Kunda Jasminum pubescens NA Mahabharat

మహాభారతంలోని మొక్కల జాబితా (M-Z సంస్కృత పేర్ల ప్రకారం)[మార్చు]

Sanskrit name of plant (Devanagari) Botanical name Indian names Indian epic Parva Shloka Location in epics Habit Present Habitat
Nyagrodha (न्यग्रोध) Ficus bengalensis Plaksha, Bengal fig, Indian fig, East Indian fig, Indian Banyan or simply Banyan, also borh, nyagrodha and wad or Vad/Vat Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war
A very large tree with many aerial roots
Endemic to Bangladesh, భారత దేశము and Sri Lanka. Found in Sub-Himalayas tract abd western peninsula, planted elsewhere.
Palasa Butea monosperma Indian: Palas, Dhak, Khakara, Kakracha English:Flame of the Forest, Bastard tree, Parrot Tree Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A medium sized deciduous tree with somewhat crooked trunk
Native to tropical southern Asia, from Pakistan, భారత దేశము, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and western Indonesia. Common Throughout భారత దేశము
Panasa पनस Artocarpus heterophyllus Indian: Kat-hal (कटहल), Phannasa, English: Jack-fruit Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A large evergreen tree
Native to parts of South and Southeast Asia. Indigenous to భారత దేశము, grows wild in Western Ghats.
Panasa पनस - - Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country - -
Parijata पारिजात Nyctanthes arbortristis Indian:Paarijaat, Praajakt, Harsinghar, Seoli, Khurasli, English:Indian mourner, Night jasmine, Coral jasmine Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.60 Sarasvati River
It is a hardy shrub or a small tree.
Native to భారత దేశము, southern Asia from northern Pakistan and Nepal to Thailand
Parushaka परूषक NA NA Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.59 Sarasvati River
Pilu पीलु Salvadora oleoides Indian:Vann, Punjabi:ون/ਵਣ, Hindi:जाल/पीलू Sindhi:Jar Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.59 Sarasvati River
A small bushy evergreen tree
Found in భారత దేశము and Pakistan.
Pilu पीलु Salvadora oleoides - Mahabharata Sabha Parva II.47.4 Kamboja country - -
Pilu पीलु Salvadora oleoides - Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra Sarasvati River - -
Pilu पीलु Salvadora oleoides - Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war
Pilu पीलु Salvadora oleoides - Mahabharata Karna Parva VIII.30.24 Kuru-jangal country
Plaksha Ficus religiosa Pipal, Pimpalla, Bodhi Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A large or middle sized deciduous tree
Plaksha पलक्ष Ficus religiosa - Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra, Sarasvati River
Plaksha पलक्ष Ficus religiosa - Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war
Rohitaka रौहीतक Tecomella undulata Rohida, Desert teak Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23, III. 241.67) Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra, Sarasvati River
A deciduous or nearly evergreen tree of arid and semi arid regions.
Restricted to the drier parts of the Arabia, southern Pakistan and northwest భారత దేశము up to an elevation of 1200 metres. In Pakistan it is found in Baluchistan and Sindh. In భారత దేశము, it occurs naturally in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
Rohitaka रॊहीतक Tecomella undulata Rohida, Desert teak Mahabharata Sabha Parva II.29.4 West of Khandavaprastha - -
Rohitaka रॊहीतक Tecomella undulata Rohida, Desert teak Mahabharata Udyoga Parva II.29.4 The region called Kuru-Jangala, and the forest of Rohitaka - -
Sahakaras Mangifera indica English:Mango, Indian: Aamba, Aamra, Aam, Amb Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country
A middle sized evergreen tree
A common tree all over India cultivated for its delicious fruits
Sanuha सनुह NA NA Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra, Sarasvati River
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria Ghaf (United Arab Emirates), Khejri, Jant/Janti, Sangri (Rajasthan), jand (Punjabi), kandi (Sind), Banni (Kannada), Vanni (Tamil), sami, sumri (Gujarat). Mahabharata Sabha Parva II.47.4 Kamboja country
A small to medium size tree
Occurs in the dry and arid regions of భారత దేశము. It is one of the chief indigenous trees of the plains of the Punjab, Western Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bundelkhand, Delhi, Agra, dry parts of Central and Southern India, Maharashtra (near Nasik), Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka (south of Godavari). Occurs in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria Khejadi Mahabharata Virata Parva IV.5.12 River Yamuna in Viratanagara -
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria Khejadi Mahabharata Drona Parva VII.153.24 Kurukshetra war -
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria NA Mahabharata Karna Parva VIII.30.24 Kuru-jangal country -
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria NA Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX:46.12 Sarasvati River -
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria NA Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX:46.16 Sarasvati River -
Shami शमी Prosopis cineraria NA Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX:46.18 Sarasvati River -
Shirisha शिरीष Albizzia lebbeck English:Lebbeck, Lebbek Tree, Flea Tree, Frywood, Koko and Woman's tongues Tree. Indian:Siras, Shirisha, Kala-siris, Chichola, Chichwa Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra, Sarasvati River
A large, erect, unarmed deciduous, spreading tree
A road-side tree common throughout భారత దేశము, native to tropical southern Asia, and widely cultivated and naturalised in other tropical and subtropical regions.
Shyama शयाम Salvadora persica Sanskrit: Pilu, angāhavā, sītasahā, śyāma, Indian:Khaankann, mirajollee, khakhin, miraj, jhak, pilva, kharjal, rhakhan, thorapilu, English:Arak, toothbrush tree Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.6 King Kusika country
A small tree or shrub with a crooked trunk, seldom more than one foot in diameter
Konkan, Maharashtra, drier parts of India including Punjab and Rajasthan
Tilaka तिलक Vitex altissima English :Tall chaste tree, Hindi : Tilakapushpa Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country A large tree grows up to 40 meters in height Throughout south భారత దేశము, in evergreen and deciduous forests.
Uddalakas उद्दालक Cordia myxa Indian:Lasora, Bhokara, Shelvant, English: Assyrian plum, Sebeston plum, Large sebestan Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.4 King Kusika country A medium-sized broad-leaved deciduous tree In the Indian subcontinent, it is seen coming up naturally and growing abundantly from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West
Vamsa Dendrocalamus species Bamboo Mahabharata Virata Parva IV.57.? Kurukshetra war
Vamsa Dendrocalamus species Bamboo Mahabharata Virata Parva VII.34.? Kurukshetra war
Vanjula वञ्जुल Saraca asoca Ashoka Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.5 King Kusika country
A middle sized evergreen tree
Cultivated ingargens throughout భారత దేశము
Varanapushpa वारणपुष्प Calophyllum inophyllum Sanskrit:Punnāga (पुन्नाग), Indian:Undi, Undala, Unang, Surangi, Surpunka, Sultan champa, English: Alexandrian Laurel, Tamil:Pinnai Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.54.6 King Kusika country
A middle sized evergreen sub-marine tree
It is native from East Africa, southern coastal భారత దేశము to Malesia and Australia. Coastal regions and littoral forest of భారత దేశము and grown as an ornamental tree.
vaṭa (वट) Ficus bengalensis Plaksha, Bengal fig, Indian fig, East Indian fig, Indian Banyan or simply Banyan, also borh, nyagrodha and wad or Vad/Vat Mahabharata Vana Parva III.1.39, III.13.74 Pramanakoti on the banks of Ganges, to the north of Hastinapura
A very large tree with many aerial roots
Endemic to Bangladesh, భారత దేశము and Sri Lanka. Found in Sub-Himalayas tract abd western peninsula, planted elsewhere.
Venu वेणू Bambusa arundinacea English:Spiny bamboo, Hindi:Kaantaa baans (काँटा बांस) Mahabharata Anusasana Parva XIII.109.47 A graceful spinous perennial erect herb Wild throughout భారత దేశము especially in hill forests.
Venu (Kichaka) कीचक वेणू Bambusa arundinacea English:Spiny bamboo, Hindi:Kaantaa baans (काँटा बांस) Mahabharata Sabha Parva II.48.2 Where River Sailoda flows between the mountains of Meru and Mandara
A graceful spinous perennial erect herb
Wild throughout భారత దేశము especially in hill forests.
Vetas वेतस Calamus rotang Rattan Palm Mahabharata Vana Parva III.174.23 Dvaita Forest, Kurukshetra, Sarasvati River
The basal section of the plant grows vertically for 10 metres or so, after which the slender, tough stem of a few centimetres in diameter, grows horizontally for 200 metres or more.
Found in Southwest Asia.
Vibhitaka विभीतक Terminalia bellirica English:Bastard, Myrobalan, Belliric myrobalan, Hindi: Baheraa (बहेड़ा), Behaddaa, Bibheeta, Mahabharata Shalya Parva IX.36.58 Sarasvati River
A large deciduous tree
Common on plains and lower hills throughout the forests of భారత దేశము. Common in Southeast Asia, where it is also grown as an avenue tree.

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