అప్పడాలు

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అప్పడాలు

The papadum (for alternative names see box) is a thin Indian wafer, sometimes described as a cracker or flatbread.

An important part of Indian cuisine, recipes vary from region to region and family to family, but typically it is made from lentil, chickpea, black gram or rice flour. In North India, the lentil variety is more popular and is usually called 'papad'. Salt and peanut oil are added to make a dough, which can be flavored with seasonings such as chili, cumin, garlic or black pepper. Sometimes baking soda is also added. The dough is shaped into a thin, round flat bread and then dried (traditionally in the sun) and can be cooked by deep-frying, roasting over an open flame, toasting, or microwaving, depending on the desired texture.

Papadums are typically served as an accompaniment to a meal in India. It is also eaten as an appetizer or a snack and can be eaten with various toppings such as chopped onions, chutney or other dips and condiments. In certain parts of India, raw papadums (dried but unroasted) are used in curries and vegetable preparations. Papadums are made in different sizes. Smaller ones can be eaten like a snack chip and the larger ones can be used to make wraps.

Papad is often associated with the empowerment of women in India. Many individual and organized businesses run by women produce papad, pickles, and other snacks. This provides them regular income from minimal financial investments. Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad is an organization solely run by women that produces large quantities of papadums on the open market. It started as a tiny, failing business in the late 1950s[1][2], and now has an annual income of over 3.15 billion, or just under $80 million US dollars.[3]


Etymology[మార్చు]

Papadum is a loan word from Tamil pappaṭām.[4] Appadam is the word for papad in Telugu. In the Kannada language, common in the Dakshina Kannada district, a papad is referred to as a "happala," and is often made with black gram, jackfruit, and sabudana. The word papad occurs in a Hindi tongue twister - "Kachaa paapad, Pakaa paapad" (raw papad, fried/roasted papad), something similar to "Good blood, Bad blood".

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. Malathi Ramanathan. "Grassroots Developments in Women's Empowerment in India: Case Study of Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad (1959–2000)". Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  2. "organization - The Beginning". Lijjat. Retrieved 2006-02-04. 
  3. Surekha Kadapa-Bose (2005-04-01). "Their kitchen radiates energy". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  4. "poppadom, n." OED Online. December 2006. Oxford University Press. <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50184072>.

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