సెయింట్ లూసియా

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
Saint Lucia
నినాదము: "The Land, The People, The Light"
గీతం: Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia
రాజధాని
మరియు అతిపెద్ద నగరము
Castries
14°1′N 60°59′W / 14.017°N 60.983°W / 14.017; -60.983
అధికార భాషలు ఆగ్లం[1] ఆగ్లం[2]
Vernacular
language
s
సెయింట్ లూసియా క్రియోల్ ఫ్రెంచ్ [1] సెయింట్ లూసియా క్రియోల్ ఫ్రెంచ్[2]
జాతి సమూహాలు
ప్రజానామము Saint Lucian
ప్రభుత్వం Parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Pearlette Louisy
 -  Prime Minister Kenny Anthony
శాసనసభ Parliament
 -  ఎగువ సభ Senate
 -  దిగువ సభ House of Assembly
Independence
 -  Associated State 1 March 1967 
 -  from the United Kingdom 22 February 1979 
ప్రాంతం
 -  Total 617 km2 (191st)
238.23 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
జనాభా
 -  2009 census 173,765
 -  Density 298/km2 (41st)
672/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $2.101 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $12,927[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.239 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $7,769[3]
HDI (2012) Increase 0.725
high · 88th
ద్రవ్యం East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Time zone (UTC−4)
Drives on the left
Calling code +1 758
ISO 3166 code LC
Internet TLD .lc

The French were the island's first European settlers. They signed a treaty with the native Carib Indians in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, it was at war with France 14 times, and rule of the island changed frequently (it was seven times each ruled by the French and British). In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island. Because it switched so often between British and French control, Saint Lucia was also known as the "Helen of the West Indies".

Representative government came about in 1840 (with universal suffrage from 1953). From 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the Federation of the West Indies. On 22 February 1979, Saint Lucia became an independent state of the Commonwealth of Nations associated with the United Kingdom.[4] Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction,[5] meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law. The Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English common law-style legislation. It is also a member of La Francophonie.[6]

History[మార్చు]

ప్రధాన వ్యాసం: History of Saint Lucia

The French pirate François le Clerc (also known as Jambe de Bois, due to his wooden leg) frequently visited Saint Lucia in the 1550s. It was not until around 1600 that the first European camp was started by the Dutch at what is now Vieux Fort. In 1605 an English vessel called the Olive Branch was blown off-course on its way to Guyana, and the 67 colonists started a settlement on Saint Lucia. After five weeks only 19 survived due to disease and conflict with the Caribs, so they fled the island. The French officially claimed the island in 1635. The English attempted the next European settlement in 1639, and that too was wiped out by Caribs.

French colony[మార్చు]

In 1643 a French expedition sent out from Martinique established a permanent settlement on the island. De Rousselan was appointed the island's governor, took a Carib wife and remained in post until his death in 1654.

In 1664, Thomas Warner (son of Sir Thomas Warner, the governor of St. Kitts) claimed Saint Lucia for England. He brought 1,000 men to defend it from the French, but after two years, only 89 survived with the rest dying mostly due to disease. In 1666 the French West India Company resumed control of the island, which in 1674 was made an official French crown colony as a dependency of Martinique.[7]

18th and 19th century[మార్చు]

Both the British and the French found the island attractive after the sugar industry developed, and during the 18th century the island changed ownership or was declared neutral territory a dozen times, although the French settlements remained and the island was a de facto French colony well into the eighteenth century.

In 1722, George I of Great Britain granted both Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent to The 2nd Duke of Montagu. He in turn appointed Nathaniel Uring, a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, and established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were quickly run off by the French.[8]

During the Seven Years' War Britain occupied Saint Lucia for a year. Britain handed the island back to the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Like the English and Dutch on other islands, the French began to develop the land for the cultivation of sugar cane as a commodity crop on large plantations in 1765.

When the French Revolution occurred, and the slaves had heard about the revolution, they walked off their jobs in 1790–1791 to work for themselves. In 1792 a revolutionary tribunal was sent to Saint Lucia, headed by Captain Jean-Baptiste Raymond de Lacrosse. Bringing the ideas of the revolution to Saint Lucia, Lacrosse set up a guillotine used to execute Royalists. In 1794 the French governor of the island Nicolas Xavier de Ricard declared that all slaves were free, as also happened In Saint-Domingue. However, the decree was unevenly carried out.

A short time later the British invaded the island as a part of the recently broken out war with France. On 21 February 1795 a group of locals led by Victor Hugues defeated a battalion of British troops. In 1796 Castries was burned as part of the conflict. In 1803 the British regained control of the island. Many of the rebels escaped into the thick rain forests where they evaded capture and established maroon communities.[9]

The slavery on the island was continued for a short time, but anti-slavery sentiment was rising in Britain. The British stopped the import of slaves by anyone, white or coloured, when they abolished the slave trade in 1807. France and Great Britain continued to contest Saint Lucia until the British secured it in 1814, as part of the Treaty of Paris ending the Napoleonic Wars. Thereafter Saint Lucia was considered part of the British Windward Islands colony.

In 1836 the institution of slavery was abolished on the island and throughout the British Empire. After abolition, all former slaves had to serve a four-year "apprenticeship," to accustom them to the idea of freedom. During this period, they worked for their former masters for at least three-quarters of the work week. Full freedom was duly granted by the British in 1838. By that time, people of African ethnicity greatly outnumbered those of ethnic European background. Some people of Carib descent also comprised a minority on the island.

20th century[మార్చు]

In the mid-twentieth century, Saint Lucia joined the West Indies Federation (1958–1962) when the colony was dissolved. In 1967, Saint Lucia became one of the six members of the West Indies Associated States, with internal self-government. In 1979 it gained full independence under Sir John Compton of the conservative United Workers party (UWP), who served as prime minister from 1982 to 1996, after which he was succeeded by Vaughan Lewis.

Dr. Kenny Davis Anthony of the Labour Party was prime minister from 1997 to 2006. In 2006, the UWP, again led by Compton, won control of parliament. In May 2007, after Compton suffered a series of small strokes, Finance and External Affairs Minister Stephenson King became acting prime minister and succeeded Compton as prime minister when the latter died in September 2007. In November 2011, the Honorable Dr. Kenny D. Anthony was re-elected as prime minister for a third time. In the June 2016 elections the UWP assumed power again, under Prime Minister Allen Chastanet.[10]

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; sltb-about అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  2. 2.0 2.1 ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; usstate-bgnote అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Saint Lucia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  4. "The Saint Lucia Constitution" (1978-December-20 effective 1979-February-22), Government of St. Lucia, December 2008, www.stlucia.gov.lc (see below: References).
  5. MIXED LEGAL SYSTEMS. juriglobe.ca
  6. "Human development indices" (PDF). Undp.org. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. 
  7. World Statesmen: Saint Lucia Chronology Linked 2014-01-20
  8. మూస:DNB
  9. They Called Us the Brigands. The Saga of St. Lucia's Freedom Fighters by Robert J Devaux
  10. "Allen Chastanet sworn in new St Lucia PM". Jamaica Observer. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 

వెలుపలి లింకులు[మార్చు]