క్యూబా

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ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
República de Cuba
క్యూబా గణతంత్రం
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పాట్రియా ఓ ముయెర్టే (స్పానిష్)
"Fatherland or Death" a
జాతీయగీతం
లా బయమేసా("The Bayamo Song")
క్యూబా యొక్క స్థానం
రాజధాని
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హవానా
23°8′N, 82°23′W
అధికార భాషలు స్పానిష్
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ప్రభుత్వం సామ్యవాద గణతంత్రంb
 -  అధ్యక్షుడు రాల్ కాస్ట్రో
 -  మొదటి ఉపాధ్యక్షుడు జోసె రమోన్ మకాడో వెంచూరా
స్వాతంత్ర్యం స్పెయిన్ నుండి 
 -  ప్రకటించబడినది c అక్టోబరు 10 1868 
 -  గణతంత్రంగా ప్రకటితము మే 20 1902 
 -  క్యూబా విప్లవోద్యమం జనవరి 1 1959 
 -  జలాలు (%) negligible
జనాభా
 -  2007 అంచనా 11,394,043[1] (73వ)
 -  2002 జన గణన 11,177,743 
జీడీపీ (PPP) 2006 అంచనా
 -  మొత్తం $46.22 బిలియన్ (2006 లెక్కలు)[2] (not ranked)
 -  తలసరి $4,500 (2007 est.)[2] (not ranked)
మా.సూ (హెచ్.డి.ఐ) (2007) 0.838[3] (high) (51st[3])
కరెన్సీ క్యూబా పెసో (CUP)
మార్పిడిగల పెసో d (CUC)
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క్యూబా గణతంత్రం (రిపబ్లిక్ ఆఫ్ క్యూబా), ఒక పెద్ద ద్వీపము 'గ్రేటర్ ఆంటిల్లెస్' మరియు కొన్నిచిన్నచిన్న ద్వీపాలు గలవు. క్యూబా ఉత్తర 'కరీబియన్' ప్రాంతంలో గలదు. ఈ ప్రాంతం కరీబియన్ సముద్రం మెక్సికో అఖాతము మరియు అట్లాంటిక్ మహాసముద్రము ల కలయికల ప్రాంతం. క్యూబా అమెరికా మరియు బహామాస్కు ఆగ్నేయ దిశలోనూ, 'టర్క్స్ మరియు కైకోస్ ద్వీపాలు, హైతీ లకు పశ్చిమాన, మెక్సికోకు తూర్పున మరియు కేమెన్ ద్వీపాలు మరియు జమైకా లకు దక్షిణాన ఉంది.దేశరాజధాని నగరం వవానా అతిపెద్ద నగరంగా కూడా ప్రత్యేకత కలిగి ఉంది. ఇతర ప్రదాన నగరాలలో శాంటిగో డీ క్యూబా మరియు కాంగువా నగరాలు ప్రధానమైనవి. కరీబియన్ ద్వీపాలలో క్యూబా అతిపెద్ద ద్వీపం ( వైశాల్యం 1,09,884 చ.కి.మీ. ) అలాగే జనసాంధ్రతలో ద్వితీయ స్థానంలో ఉంది. ప్రధమ స్థానంలో " హిస్పానియోలా ఉంది. జనసంఖ్య 11 మిలియన్లు.[4] స్పానిష్ కాలనైజేషన్‌కు ముందు 15 వ శతాబ్ధం చివరలో క్యూబాలో అమెరిండియన్లు నివసించారు. 1898 స్పానిష్ - అమెరికన్ యుద్ధం జరిగే వరకు క్యూబా స్పానిష్ పాలనలో ఉంది. తరువాత క్యూబాకు నామమాత్ర స్వతంత్రం లభించింది. 1902 వరకు యునైటెడ్ స్టేట్స్ ప్రొటెక్టరేట్‌గా ఉంది. తాత్కాలిక రిపబ్లిక్‌గా క్యూబా 1940లో రాజ్యాంగం విధానం రూపొందించుకోవడానికి ప్రయత్నించింది.ఫుల్జెంసియొ బాటిస్టా (1952) నియంతృత్వ పాలనకు వ్యతిరేకంగా రాజకీయ తిరుగుబాటు మరియు ప్రజాందోళనలు ఉచ్ఛస్థాయికి చేరుకున్నాయి. [5] అశాంతి మరియు అస్థిరత " క్యూబన్ తిరుగుబాటు 1959 " కి దారి తీసాయి. బాటిస్టా పదవి నుండి తొలగించబడిన తరువాత " ఫిడెల్ కాస్ట్రో " నాయకత్వంలో కొత్త ప్రభుత్వం స్థాపించబడింది. 1965 నుండి క్యూబాను " కమ్యూనిస్టు పార్టీ ఆఫ్ క్యూబా " పాలించింది. సోవియట్ యూనియన్ మరియు యునైటెడ్ స్టేట్స్ మద్య కోల్డ్ వార్ అకారణంగా క్యూబల్ మిస్సైల్ క్రైసిస్ (1962) లో న్యూక్లియర్ యుద్ధానికి వాతావరణం సిద్ధం అయింది. మార్కిస్టు - లెనినిస్ట్ , సోషలిస్ట్ స్టేట్ గా మిగిలిన అతికొన్ని దేశాలలో క్యూబా ఒకటి. స్వతంత్ర పర్యవేక్షకులు మానవహక్కుల ఉల్లంఘన మరియు విచారణరహిత ఖైదు వంటి విషయాలను విమర్శిస్తూ ఉంటారు.[6]క్యూబా, కరీబియన్ ప్రాంతంలో అధిక జనసాంద్రత గల దేశం. (క్యూబావో [7]) లేదా "గొప్ప ప్రదేశం" (కోబానా [8]). క్యూబా ప్రధాన ద్వీపం ప్రపంచంలోని అతిపెద్ద ద్వీపాలలో 17వ స్థానాన్ని ఆక్రమిస్తోంది. సాంస్కృతంగా క్యూబా లాటిన్ అమెరికాలో భాగంగా భావించబడుతుంది.[9] ఇది బహుళసంప్రదాయ కలిగిన దేశం.ఇక్కడ ప్రజలు, సంస్కృతి మరియు అలవాట్లకు ఆదిమజాతికి చెందిన టైనొ ప్రజలు మరియు సిబొనీ ప్రజలు మూలంగా ఉన్నారు. దీర్ఘకాల బానిసత్వం, ఆఫ్రికన్ బానిసల ప్రవేశం మరియు కోల్డ్ వార్ కారణంగా సోవియట్ యూనియన్‌తో ఉన్న సన్నిహిత సంబంధాలు క్యూబా సంస్కృతి మీద గణనీయమైన ప్రభావం చూపాయి.క్యూబా ఆర్ధికరంగాన్ని చక్కెర, పొగాకు, కాఫీ మరియు నైపుణ్యం కలిగిన శ్రామికుల ఆధిఖ్యం అధికంగా ఉంది. మానవాభివృద్ధి సూచిక ఆధారంగా ఇది ఉన్నత మానవాభివృద్ధి కలిగిన దేశంగా గుర్తించబడుతుంది. మానవాభివృద్ధిలో క్యూబా ఉత్తర అమెరికాలో 8వ స్థానంలోనూ ప్రపంచంలో 67వ స్థానంలోనూ ఉంది. [10] ఆరోగ్యసంరక్షణ మరియు విద్యాభివృద్ధిలో కూడా క్యూబా ఉన్నత స్థితిలో ఉంది.[11][12] ప్రపంచంలో " వరల్డ్ ఫండ్ ఫర్ నేచుర్ " అందుకుంటున్న ఏకైకదేశంగా క్యూబా ప్రత్యేకత కలిగి ఉంది. [13] క్యూబా వెనుజులా నుండి సహాయం అందుకుంటున్నది (2008 - 2010 మద్య 20% జి.డి.పి) ఇదే మాదిరి సహాయం సోవియట్ యూనియన్ నుండి అందుకుంది(1985-1988). [14][15]

చరిత్ర[మార్చు]

కొలంబస్ యొక్క ప్రథమ నౌకాయానం

క్రిస్టఫర్ కొలంబస్ 1492 అక్టోబరు 12 న క్యూబాను మొదటిసారిగా తన నౌకాయాత్రలో సందర్శించాడు.[16]


కొలంబియన్ పూర్వకాలం[మార్చు]

Monument of Hatuey, an early Taíno chief of Cuba

స్పానిష్ వారు ఇక్కడకు చేరడానికి ముందు క్యూబాలో టైనొ (అరవాక్ ప్రజలు), గునాజటబే మరియు సిబోనీ అనే మూడు స్థానిక అమెరికన్ ప్రజలు నివసించారు.సిబోనీ ప్రజల పూర్వీకులు 5000 సంవత్సరాలకు ముందు దక్షిణ అమెరికా నుండి క్యూబా చేరుకున్నారు. [17]టైనొ ప్రజలు హిస్పనోలా నుండి క్రీ.శ 3 వ శతాబ్ధంలో ఈప్రాంతానికి చేరుకున్నారు.కొలబస్ ఇక్కడకు చేరుకున్న సమయంలో 1,50,000 జనసంఖ్యతో టనొ ప్రజలు ఈఈప్రాంతంలో ఆధిఖ్యత కలిగి ఉన్నారు.[17]

టైనోభాష క్యూబా పదానికి మూలంగా ఉంది. క్యూబాకు అనేపదానికి కొయాబనా (గొప్ప ప్రదేశం అని అర్ధం) మూలంగా ఉంది.మరొక కథనం క్యుబాయో (విస్తారమైన పంటభూములు ఉన్న ప్రాంతం అని అర్ధం) మూలంగా ఉందని తెలియజేస్తుంది.[18][19] టనొ ప్రజలు వ్యవసాయదారులు. సిబోనీ ప్రజలకు వ్యవసాయంతో చేపలుపట్టడం మరియు వేట సేకరణ జీవనోపాధిగా ఉండేది.

స్పానిష్ కాలనైజేషన్ మరియు పాలన (1492–1898)[మార్చు]

After first landing on an island then called Guanahani, Bahamas, on October 12, 1492,

[20]

Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on October 28, 1492.

[21]

(This was near what is now Bariay, Holguín Province.) Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain

[22]

and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias.

[23]

In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which later became the capital. The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system,

[24]

which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe.

[25]

Within a century the indigenous people were virtually wiped out due to multiple factors, primarily Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance (immunity), aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation.

[26]

In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had previously survived smallpox.

[27][28]

On May 18, 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana, Cuba at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure, fame and power.

[29]

On September 1, 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba. He arrived in Santiago, Cuba on November 4, 1549 and immediately declared the liberty of all natives.

[30] He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, and he built Havana's first church made of masonry.[31] After the French took Havana in 1555, the governor's son, Francisco de Angulo, went to Mexico.[32]

British map of Cuba 1680

Cuba developed slowly and, unlike the plantation islands of the Caribbean, had a diversified agriculture. But what was most important was that the colony developed as an urbanized society that primarily supported the Spanish colonial empire. By the mid-18th century, its colonists held 50,000 slaves, compared to 60,000 in Barbados; 300,000 in Virginia, both British colonies; and 450,000 in French Saint-Domingue, which had large-scale sugar cane plantations.

[33]

Map of Cuba by Cornelius van Wytfliet in 1597 (National Library of Sweden)

The Seven Years' War, which erupted in 1754 across three continents, eventually arrived in the Spanish Caribbean. Spain's alliance with the French pitched them into direct conflict with the British, and in 1762 a British expedition of five warships and 4,000 troops set out from Portsmouth to capture Cuba. The British arrived on June 6, and by August had Havana under siege.

[34] When Havana surrendered, the admiral of the British fleet, George Keppel, the 3rd Earl of Albemarle, entered the city as a conquering new governor and took control of the whole western part of the island. The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. They imported food, horses and other goods into the city, as well as thousands of slaves from West Africa to work on the under developed sugar plantations.

[34]

Though Havana, which had become the third-largest city in the Americas, was to enter an era of sustained development and increasing ties with North America during this period, the British occupation of the city proved short-lived. Pressure from London sugar merchants, fearing a decline in sugar prices, forced negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. Less than a year after Britain seized Havana, it signed the Peace of Paris together with France and Spain, ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba. The French had recommended this to Spain, advising that declining to give up Florida could result in Spain instead losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British.

[34]

Many in Britain were disappointed, believing that Florida was a poor return for Cuba and Britain's other gains in the war.

The real engine for the growth of Cuba's commerce in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was the Haitian Revolution. When the enslaved peoples of what had been the Caribbean's richest colony freed themselves through violent revolt, Cuban planters perceived the region's changing circumstances with both a sense of fear and opportunity. They were afraid because of the prospect that slaves might revolt in Cuba, too, and numerous prohibitions during the 1790s on the sale of slaves in Cuba that had previously been slaves in French colonies underscored this anxiety. The planters saw opportunity, however, because they thought that they could exploit the situation by transforming Cuba into the slave society and sugar-producing "pearl of the Antilles" that Haiti had been before the revolution.

[35]

As the historian Ada Ferrer has written, "At a basic level, liberation in Saint-Domingue helped entrench its denial in Cuba. As slavery and colonialism collapsed in the French colony, the Spanish island underwent transformations that were almost the mirror image of Haiti's."

[36]

Estimates suggest that between 1790 and 1820 some 325,000 Africans were imported to Cuba as slaves, which was four times the amount that had arrived between 1760 and 1790.

[37]

Slaves in Cuba unloading ice from Maine, c. 1832

Although a smaller proportion of the population of Cuba was enslaved, at times slaves arose in revolt. In 1812 the Aponte Slave Rebellion took place but it was suppressed.

[38]

The population of Cuba in 1817 was 630,980, of which 291,021 were white, 115,691 free people of color (mixed-race), and 224,268 black slaves.

[39]

This was a much higher proportion of free blacks to slaves than in Virginia, for instance, or the other Caribbean islands. Historians such as Swedish Magnus Mõrner, who studied slavery in Latin America, found that manumissions increased when slave economies were in decline, as in 18th-century Cuba and early 19th-century Maryland of the United States.

[33][40]

In part due to Cuban slaves working primarily in urbanized settings, by the 19th century, there had developed the practice of coartacion, or "buying oneself out of slavery", a "uniquely Cuban development", according to historian Herbert S. Klein.

[41]

Due to a shortage of white labor, blacks dominated urban industries "to such an extent that when whites in large numbers came to Cuba in the middle of the nineteenth century, they were unable to displace Negro workers."

[33]

A system of diversified agriculture, with small farms and fewer slaves, served to supply the cities with produce and other goods.

[33]

In the 1820s, when the rest of Spain's empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal. Its economy was based on serving the empire. By 1860, Cuba had 213,167 free people of color, 39% of its non-White population of 550,000.

[33]

By contrast, Virginia with about the same number of blacks, had only 58,042 or 11% who were free; the rest were enslaved.

[33]

In the antebellum years, Virginia discouraged manumissions after the Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion of 1831 and strengthened restrictions against free blacks, as did other southern states. In addition, there was a high demand for slaves, and Virginia planters sold many in the internal domestic slave trade, to be shipped or taken overland to the Deep South, which had greatly expanded its cotton production.

స్వతంత్ర ఉద్యమం[మార్చు]

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is known as Father of the Homeland in Cuba, having declared the nation's independence from Spain in 1868.

Full independence from Spain was the goal of a rebellion in 1868 led by planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. De Céspedes, a sugar planter, freed his slaves to fight with him for an independent Cuba. On December 27, 1868, he issued a decree condemning slavery in theory but accepting it in practice and declaring free any slaves whose masters present them for military service.

[42]

The 1868 rebellion resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War. Two thousand Cuban Chinese joined the rebels. Chinese had been imported as indentured laborers. A monument in Havana honours the Cuban Chinese who fell in the war.

[43]

The United States declined to recognize the new Cuban government, although many European and Latin American nations did so.

[44]

In 1878, the Pact of Zanjón ended the conflict, with Spain promising greater autonomy to Cuba. In 1879–1880, Cuban patriot Calixto García attempted to start another war known as the Little War but did not receive enough support.

[45]

Slavery in Cuba was abolished in 1875 but the process was completed only in 1886.

[46]

[47]

An exiled dissident named José Martí founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York in 1892. The aim of the party was to achieve Cuban independence from Spain.

[48]

In January 1895 Martí traveled to Montecristi and Santo Domingo to join the efforts of Máximo Gómez.

[48]

Martí recorded his political views in the Manifesto of Montecristi.

[49]

Fighting against the Spanish army began in Cuba on February 24, 1895, but Martí was unable to reach Cuba until April 11, 1895.

[48]

Martí was killed in the battle of Dos Rios on May 19, 1895.

[48]

His death immortalized him as Cuba's national hero.

[49]

Calixto García, a general of Cuban separatist rebels, (right) with U.S. Brigadier General William Ludlow (Cuba, 1898)

Around 200,000 Spanish troops outnumbered the much smaller rebel army, which relied mostly on guerrilla and sabotage tactics. The Spaniards began a campaign of suppression. General Valeriano Weyler, military governor of Cuba, herded the rural population into what he called reconcentrados, described by international observers as "fortified towns". These are often considered the prototype for 20th-century concentration camps.

[50]

Between 200,000 and 400,000 Cuban civilians died from starvation and disease in the camps, numbers verified by the Red Cross and United States Senator Redfield Proctor, a former Secretary of War. American and European protests against Spanish conduct on the island followed.

[51]

The U.S. battleship Maine was sent to protect U.S. interests, but soon after arrival, it exploded in Havana harbor and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of the crew. The cause and responsibility for the sinking of the ship remained unclear after a board of inquiry. Popular opinion in the U.S., fueled by an active press, concluded that the Spanish were to blame and demanded action.

[52]

Spain and the United States declared war on each other in late April 1898.

Over the previous decades, five U.S. presidents—Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Grant, and McKinley—had tried to buy the island of Cuba from Spain.[53][54]

రిపబ్లిక్ (1902–59)[మార్చు]

ఆరంభకాలం (1902-1925)[మార్చు]

Raising the Cuban flag on the Governor General's Palace at noon on May 20, 1902

After the Spanish–American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris (1898), by which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States for the sum of US$20 million.

[55]

Cuba gained formal independence from the U.S. on May 20, 1902, as the Republic of Cuba.

[56]

Under Cuba's new constitution, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, the U.S. leased the Guantánamo Bay naval base from Cuba.

Following disputed elections in 1906, the first president, Tomás Estrada Palma, faced an armed revolt by independence war veterans who defeated the meager government forces.

[57]

The U.S. intervened by occupying Cuba and named Charles Edward Magoon as Governor for three years. Cuban historians have characterized Magoon's governorship as having introduced political and social corruption.

[58]

In 1908, self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U.S. continued intervening in Cuban affairs. In 1912, the Partido Independiente de Color attempted to establish a separate black republic in Oriente Province,

[59]

but was suppressed by General Monteagudo with considerable bloodshed.

In 1924, Gerardo Machado was elected president.

[60]

During his administration, tourism increased markedly, and American-owned hotels and restaurants were built to accommodate the influx of tourists.

[60]

The tourist boom led to increases in gambling and prostitution in Cuba.

[60]

The Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to a collapse in the price of sugar, political unrest, and repression.

[61]

Protesting students, known as the Generation of 1930, turned to violence in opposition to the increasingly unpopular Machado.

[61]

A general strike (in which the Communist Party sided with Machado),

[62]

uprisings among sugar workers, and an army revolt forced Machado into exile in August 1933. He was replaced by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada.

[61]

The Pentarchy of 1933. Fulgencio Batista, who controlled the armed forces, appears at far right

తిరుగుబాటు (1933-1940)[మార్చు]

In September 1933, the Sergeants' Revolt, led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista, overthrew Cespedes.

[63]

A five-member executive committee (the Pentarchy of 1933) was chosen to head a provisional government.

[64]

Ramón Grau San Martín was then appointed as provisional president.

[64]

Grau resigned in 1934, leaving the way clear for Batista, who dominated Cuban politics for the next 25 years, at first through a series of puppet-presidents.

[63]

The period from 1933 to 1937 was a time of "virtually unremitting social and political warfare".

[65].

On balance, during this period 1933-1940 Cuba is supported by a fragile politic reality that materialize in the decision making of three presidents in two years (1935-1936), as well as in the militaristic and repressive policies of Batista as Head of the Army.

రాజ్యాంగం 1940[మార్చు]

A new constitution was adopted in 1940, which engineered radical progressive ideas, including the right to labour and health care.

[66]

Batista was elected president in the same year, holding the post until 1944.

[67]

He is so far the only non-white Cuban to win the nation's highest political office.

[68][69][70]

His government carried out major social reforms. Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration.

[71]

Cuban armed forces were not greatly involved in combat during World War II, although president Batista suggested a joint U.S.-Latin American assault on Francoist Spain in order to overthrow its authoritarian regime.

[72]

Batista adhered to the 1940 constitution's strictures preventing his re-election.

[73]

Ramon Grau San Martin was the winner of the next election, in 1944.[67] Grau further corroded the base of the already teetering legitimacy of the Cuban political system, in particular by undermining the deeply flawed, though not entirely ineffectual, Congress and Supreme Court.

[74]

Carlos Prío Socarrás, a protégé of Grau, became president in 1948.

[67]

The two terms of the Auténtico Party saw an influx of investment which fueled a boom and raised living standards for all segments of society and created a prosperous middle class in most urban areas.

[75]

Slum (bohio) dwellings in Havana, Cuba in 1954, just outside Havana baseball stadium. In the background is advertising for a nearby casino.


After running unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1952, Batista staged a coup.

[76]

He outlawed the Cuban Communist Party in 1952.

[77]

After the coup, Cuba had Latin America's highest per capita consumption rates of meat, vegetables, cereals, automobiles, telephones and radios, though about one third of the population was considered poor and enjoyed relatively little of this consumption.

[78]

In 1958, Cuba was a relatively well-advanced country by Latin American standards, and in some cases by world standards.

[79]

On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the largest labor union privileges in Latin America, including bans on dismissals and mechanization. They were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants", leading to disparities.

[80]

Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba extended economic regulations enormously, causing economic problems.

[68][81]

Unemployment became a problem as graduates entering the workforce could not find jobs.

[68]

The middle class, which was comparable to that of the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with unemployment and political persecution. The labor unions supported Batista until the very end.

[68][69] Batista stayed in power until he was forced into exile in December 1958.

[76]

తిరుగుబాటు మరియు కమ్యూనిస్టుల పాలన (1959–ప్రస్తుతం)[మార్చు]

Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda in 1961

In the 1950s, various organizations, including some advocating armed uprising, competed for public support in bringing about political change.

[82]

In 1956, Fidel Castro and about 80 supporters landed from the yacht Granma in an attempt to start a rebellion against the Batista government.

[82]

It was not until 1958 that Castro's July 26th Movement emerged as the leading revolutionary group.

[82]

By late 1958 the rebels had broken out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general popular insurrection. After Castro's fighters captured Santa Clara, Batista fled with his family to the Dominican Republic on January 1, 1959. Later he went into exile on the Portuguese island of Madeira and finally settled in Estoril, near Lisbon. Fidel Castro's forces entered the capital on January 8, 1959. The liberal Manuel Urrutia Lleó became the provisional president.

[83]

From 1959 to 1966 Cuban insurgents fought a six-year rebellion in the Escambray Mountains against the Castro government. The government's vastly superior numbers eventually crushed the insurgency. The rebellion lasted longer and involved more soldiers than the Cuban Revolution.

[84][85]

The U.S. State Department has estimated that 3,200 people were executed from 1959 to 1962.

[86] According to Amnesty International, death sentences from 1959–87 numbered 237 of which all but 21 were actually carried out.[87]

Other estimates for the total number of political executions range from 4,000 to 33,000.

[88][89][90]

The vast majority of those executed following the 1959 revolution were policemen, politicians, and informers of the Batista regime accused of crimes such as torture and murder, and their public trials and executions had widespread popular support among the Cuban population.

[91]

Since 1959, Cuba has regarded the U.S. presence in Guantánamo Bay as illegal.[92]

The United States government initially reacted favorably to the Cuban revolution, seeing it as part of a movement to bring democracy to Latin America.

[93]

Castro's legalization of the Communist party and the hundreds of executions that followed caused a deterioration in the relationship between the two countries.

[93]

The promulgation of the Agrarian Reform Law, expropriating thousands of acres of farmland (including from large U.S. landholders), further worsened relations.

[93][94]

In response, between 1960 and 1964 the U.S imposed a range of sanctions, eventually including a total ban on trade between the countries and a freeze on all Cuban-owned assets in the U.S.

[95]

In February 1960, Castro signed a commercial agreement with Soviet Vice-Premier Anastas Mikoyan.

[93]

In March 1960, Eisenhower gave his approval to a CIA plan to arm and train a group of Cuban refugees to overthrow the Castro regime.

[96]

The invasion (known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion) took place on April 14, 1961.

[94]

About 1,400 Cuban exiles disembarked at the Bay of Pigs, but failed in their attempt to overthrow Castro.

[94]

In January 1962, Cuba was suspended from the Organization of American States (OAS), and later the same year the OAS started to impose sanctions against Cuba of similar nature to the US sanctions.

[97]

The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in October 1962. By 1963, Cuba was moving towards a full-fledged Communist system modeled on the USSR.

[98]

Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in 1972

During the 1970s, Fidel Castro dispatched tens of thousands of troops in support of Soviet-supported wars in Africa. He supported the MPLA in Angola and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia.

[99]

The standard of living in the 1970s was "extremely spartan" and discontent was rife.

[100]

Fidel Castro admitted the failures of economic policies in a 1970 speech.

[100] In 1975 the OAS lifted its sanctions against Cuba, with the approval of 16 member states, including the U.S. The U.S., however, maintained its own sanctions.[97]

Castro's rule was severely tested in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse in 1991 (known in Cuba as the Special Period). The country faced a severe economic downturn following the withdrawal of Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually, resulting in effects such as food and fuel shortages.

[101][102]

The government did not accept American donations of food, medicines, and cash until 1993.

[101]

On August 5, 1994, state security dispersed protesters in a spontaneous protest in Havana.

[103]

Fidel Castro with South African president Thabo Mbeki and the Swedish prime minister Göran Persson, 2005

Cuba has since found a new source of aid and support in the People's Republic of China. In addition, Hugo Chávez, former President of Venezuela, and Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, became allies and both countries are major oil and gas exporters. In 2003, the government arrested and imprisoned a large number of civil activists, a period known as the "Black Spring".

[104][105]

In February 2008, Fidel Castro announced his resignation as President of Cuba.

[106] On February 24 his brother, Raúl Castro, was declared the new President.[107]

In his inauguration speech, Raúl promised that some of the restrictions on freedom in Cuba would be removed.

[108]

In March 2009, Raúl Castro removed some of his brother's appointees.

[109]

On June 3, 2009, the Organization of American States adopted a resolution to end the 47-year ban on Cuban membership of the group.

[110]

The resolution stated, however, that full membership would be delayed until Cuba was "in conformity with the practices, purposes, and principles of the OAS".[97] Fidel Castro restated his position that he was not interested in joining after the OAS resolution had been announced.

[111]

Raúl Castro meets with U.S. President Barack Obama in Panama, April 11, 2015

Effective January 14, 2013, Cuba ended the requirement established in 1961, that any citizens who wish to travel abroad were required to obtain an expensive government permit and a letter of invitation.

[112][113][114]

In 1961 the Cuban government had imposed broad restrictions on travel to prevent the mass emigration of people after the 1959 revolution;

[115]

it approved exit visas only on rare occasions.

[116]

Requirements were simplified: Cubans need only a passport and a national ID card to leave; and they are allowed to take their young children with them for the first time.

[117]

However, a passport costs on average five months' salary. Observers expect that Cubans with paying relatives abroad are most likely to be able to take advantage of the new policy.

[118]

In the first year of the program, over 180,000 left Cuba and returned.

[119]

As of December 2014, talks with Cuban officials and American officials including President Barack Obama have resulted in the exchange of releasing Alan Gross, fifty-two political prisoners, and an unnamed non-citizen agent of the United States in return for the release of three Cuban agents currently imprisoned in the United States. Additionally, while the embargo between the United States and Cuba will not be immediately lifted, it will be relaxed to allow import, export, and certain commerce within a limit between the two.

[120]

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

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