సియెర్రా లియోనె

వికీపీడియా నుండి
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 8°30′N 11°30′W / 8.500°N 11.500°W / 8.500; -11.500

Republic of Sierra Leone
Flag of Sierra Leone
Flag
Coat of arms of Sierra Leone
Coat of arms
Motto: "Unity, Freedom, Justice"
Location of  సియెర్రా లియోనె  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)  —  [Legend]
Location of  సియెర్రా లియోనె  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)  —  [Legend]

Location of Sierra Leone
Capital
and largest city
Freetown
8°29.067′N 13°14.067′W / 8.484450°N 13.234450°W / 8.484450; -13.234450
Official languagesEnglish
Spoken languages
DemonymSierra Leonean
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
Julius Maada Bio (SLPP)
Mohamed Juldeh Jalloh (SLPP)
David J. Francis (SLPP)
Abass Bundu (SLPP)
Desmond Babatunde Edwards[1]
LegislatureParliament
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
27 April 1961
• Republic declared
19 April 1971
Area
• Total
71,740 kమీ2 (27,700 sq mi) (117th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2015 census
7,075,641[1] (103rd)
• Density
79.4/km2 (205.6/sq mi) (114tha)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$12.177 billion[2]
• Per capita
$1,608[2]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$3.824 billion[2]
• Per capita
$505[2]
Gini (2011)35.4[3]
medium
HDI (2015)Decrease 0.420[4]
low · 179th
CurrencyLeone (SLL)
Time zoneGMT (UTC+0)
Drives on therightb
Calling code+232
ISO 3166 codeSL
Internet TLD.sl
  1. Rank based on 2007 figures
  2. Since 1 March 1971

Sierra Leone (/siˌɛrə liˈn[unsupported input]i[unsupported input]/, UK also /siˌɛərə -/),[5] officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone,[6] is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 kమీ2 (27,699 sq mi)[7] and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census.[1] Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. Sierra Leone has a dominant unitary central government. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area. These regions are subdivided into sixteen districts.[8][9]

Sierra Leone was a British Crown Colony from 1808 to 1961. Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first prime minister. In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general elections as an independent nation. On 19 April 1971, Siaka Stevens' government abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic. From 1978 to 1985, Sierra Leone was a one-party state in which Stevens' APC was the only legal political party in the country. The current constitution of Sierra Leone, which includes multiparty democracy, was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand-picked successor. On 23 March 1991, a rebel group known as the Revolutionary United Front led by a former Sierra Leone army officer Foday Sankoh launched an eleven-year brutal civil war in the country, in an unsuccessful goal to overthrow the Sierra Leone government.

In April 1992, the Sierra Leone military toppled Momoh from power. In January 1996, the military government under Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio returned the country to multi-party democracy and the 1991 constitution was reestablished. Bio handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election. In 1997, the military overthrew President Kabbah. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria removed the military junta from power by force and President Kabbah was reinstated as president. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democracy from 1998 to present. In January 2002, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by officially ending the civil war as the rebels were defeated by military force with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, and the United Nations.

About 16 ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and Mende. The Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, and the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most widely spoken language across Sierra Leone and is spoken by 97% of the country's population. The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups in the country, especially in their trade and social interaction.

Sierra Leone is a Muslim-majority country at 78%, though there is an influential Christian minority at about 21%.[10] Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant states in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other very peacefully, and religious violence is very rare. The major Christian and Muslim holidays are officially public holidays in the country, including Christmas, Easter, Eid al-Fitr, and Eid al-Adha. In politics, the vast majority of Sierra Leoneans vote for a candidate without regard to whether the candidate is a Muslim or a Christian.[11][12]

Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, is a major producer of gold, and has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite this natural wealth, 53% of its population lived in poverty in 2011.[13] Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

వెలుపలి లింకులు[మార్చు]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Official projection (medium variant) for the year 2013 based on the population and housing census held in Sierra Leone on 4 December 2004 Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. statistics.sl. page 13.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Sierra Leone". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  3. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  4. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  5. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  6. Salone Definition
  7. Encarta Encyclopedia. Sierra Leone (country). Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  8. "National Electoral Commission – Press Release" (PDF). 6 September 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  9. "Sierra Leone unveils new geographical map". Africa Review. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  10. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  11. "All things happily to all men". The Economist. 31 May 2014.
  12. Batty, Fodei J. (2010). What Role for Ethnicity? Political Behavior and Mobilization in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia (Ph.D.). Western Michigan University.
  13. "Sierra Leone Population below poverty line (%)". Indexmundi.com. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2018.