అర్జెంటీనా

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
República Argentina  మూస:Es
Argentine Republic[1]
Flag of Argentina Argentina యొక్క చిహ్నం
నినాదం
"En unión y libertad"  (Spanish)
"In Unity and Freedom"
జాతీయగీతం
"Himno Nacional Argentino"  (Spanish)
"Argentine National Anthem"

Argentina యొక్క స్థానం

The Argentine claims in Antarctica (overlapping the Chilean and British Antarctic claims) along with the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands (administered by the United Kingdom) shown in light green.

రాజధాని
(మరియు అతిపెద్ద నగరం)
Buenos Aires
34°36′S, 58°23′W
అధికార భాషలు Spanish (de facto)
గుర్తింపు పొందిన ప్రాంతీయ భాషలు Araucano, Guaraní, Quechua, Welsh[2][3]
జాతులు (2005[4][5]) 86.4% European
8.5% Mestizo
3.3% Arab
1.6% Amerindian
0.4% Asian and others
ప్రజానామము Argentine, Argentinian, Argentinean
ప్రభుత్వం Federal representative presidential republic
 -  President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
 -  Vice President and President of the Senate
Julio Cobos
 -  Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti
Independence from Spain 
 -  May Revolution 25 May 1810 
 -  Declared 9 July 1816 
 -  Current constitution May 1, 1853 
 -  జలాలు (%) 1.1
జనాభా
 -  2010 జన గణన 40,091,359 <--then:-->(32nd)
జీడీపీ (PPP) 2010 అంచనా
 -  మొత్తం $642.4 billion[6] (22nd)
 -  తలసరి $15,854[6] (51st)
జీడీపీ (nominal) 2010 అంచనా
 -  మొత్తం $370.3 billion[6] (27th)
 -  తలసరి $9,138[6] (62nd)
Gini? (2010) 41.4[7] (high
మా.సూ (హెచ్.డి.ఐ) (2010) Increase 0.775[8] (high) (46th)
కరెన్సీ Peso ($) (ARS)
కాలాంశం ART (UTC-3)
ఇంటర్నెట్ డొమైన్ కోడ్ .ar
కాలింగ్ కోడ్ ++54

అర్జెంటీనా(స్పానిష్:రిపబ్లికా అర్జెంటీనా) దక్షిణ అమెరికా ఖండములోని ఒక దేశము. ఇది దక్షిణ అమెరికా దక్షిణ ప్రాంతంలో ఉన్న ఇది ఒక ఫెడరల్ రిపబ్లిక్. ఈ దేశ విస్తీర్ణము 2,766,890 చదరపు కిలోమీటర్లు. అర్జెంటీనా దేశానికి పడమటి దిక్కున ఆండీస్ పర్వతశ్రేణులు తూర్పు మరియు దక్షిణమున అట్లాంటిక్ మహాసముద్రము ఎల్లలుగా ఉంది.ఇది దక్షిణ అమెరికా దక్షిణ కోణతీరాన్ని తన పొరుగున పశ్చిమసరిహద్దులో ఉన్న చిలీతో పంచుకుంటూ ఉంది.దేశం ఉత్తర సరిహద్దులో పరాగ్వే మరియు బొలీవియా దేశాలు, ఈశాన్య సరిహద్దులో బ్రెజిల్, తూర్పు సరిహద్దులో ఉరుగ్వే మరియు దక్షిణ అట్లాంటిక్ మహాసముద్రం మరియు దక్షిణ సరిహద్దులో డ్రేక్ పాసేజ్ ఉన్నాయి.27,80,400చ.కి.మీ వైశాల్యం ఉన్న ప్రధానభూమితో అర్జెంటీనా వైశాల్యపరంగా ప్రపంచంలోని 8 అతి పెద్ద దేశాలలో ఒకటిగా, లాటిన్ అమెరికా దేశాలలో ద్వితీయస్థానంలో మరియు స్పానిష్ మాట్లాడే హిస్పానియా ప్రజలు అధికంగా నివసిస్తున్న ప్రధమ స్థానంలో ఉంది. దేశం 23 ఉపవిభాగాలుగా విభజించబడి ఉంది. ఫెడరల్ రాజధాని " బ్యూనస్ ఎయిరెస్ " స్వయంప్రతిపత్తి కలిగి ఉంది. (స్పానిష్: Capital Federal)ఇది అర్జెంటీనా కాంగ్రెస్ చేత నిర్ణయించబడింది.[9] ప్రొవింసెస్ రాజధాని ప్రత్యేక నియోజకవర్గాలుగా ఉన్నప్పటికీ ఫెడ్రల్ విధానానికి అనుగుణంగా ఉంటాయి.అర్జెంటీనా కొంత అంటార్కిటికా జభాగం మీద మరియు ఫాక్‌లాండ్ ద్వీపాలు (స్పానిష్: Islas Malvinas), మరియు సౌత్ జార్జియా మరియు ది సౌత్ శాండ్‌విచ్ ద్వీపాలు మీద సార్వభౌమ్యాధికారాలు కలిగి ఉంది.ఆధునిక అర్జెంటీనా ప్రాంతంలో ఆరంభకాలంలో పాలియోలిథిక్ ప్రజలు నివసించారు.[10] 16వ శతాబ్ధంలో ఈప్రాంతం స్పెయిన్ కాలనీగా చేయబడింది.[11] అర్జెంటీనా " వైశ్రాయిలిటీ ఆఫ్ ది రియో డీ లా ప్లేటా " దేశాలలో ఒకటిగా ఉంది. [12]

1776 లో ఒక స్పానిష్ " ఓవర్సీస్ వైస్రాయల్టీ " స్థాపించబడింది. (1810-1818) అర్జెంటైన్ వార్ ఆఫ్ ఇండిపెండెన్స్ మరియు అర్జెంటైన్ డిక్లరేషన్ ఆఫ్ ఇండిపెండెన్స్ తరువాత ఆరంభం అయిన అర్జంటీనా అంతర్యుద్ధం 1861 వరకు కొనసాగింది.అర్జెంటీనా రాజధాని నగరం బ్యూనస్ ఎయిర్స్ మరియు ప్రొవింసెస్ కలిపిన సమాఖ్యగా దేశం పునర్వ్యవస్థీకరణ చేయబడింది. తరువాత దేశం శాంతి మరియు స్థిరత్వాన్ని అనుభవించింది అర్జెంటీనాలో వలసలు సాంస్కృతిక ప్రభావం ప్రజాజీవితాంలో గణనీయమైన మార్పులు తీసుకు వచ్చింది. సంపద అసమానమైన పెరుగుదల అర్జెంటీనాను 20 వ శతాబ్దం ప్రారంభంలో ప్రపంచంలోని ఏడవ అతి గొప్ప అభివృద్ధిచెందిన సంపన్న దేశంగా మారింది.[13][14] 1930 తరువాత దేశంలో నెలకొన్న రాజకీయ అశాంతి మరియు అర్ధికసంక్షోభాలు దేశాఆర్ధికస్థితి మీద ప్రభావం చూపి దేశాన్ని అభివృద్ధి చెందని దేశంగా మార్చింది. [15] అందువలన 20వ శతాబ్ధం మద్యనుండి అర్జెంటీనా 15 సంపన్నదేశాల జాబితా నుండి తొలగించబడింది. [13] అర్జెంటీనా తన " మిడిల్ పవర్ " హోదాను నిలబెట్టుకుంటూ ఉంది.[16] దక్షిణకోణం మరియు లాటిన్ అమెరికన్ దేశాలలో ప్రధానశక్తిగా అంతర్జాతీయంగా గుర్తించబడుతుంది.[17] [18]

దక్షిణ అమెరికాలో అర్జెంటీనా రెండవ అతిపెద్ద ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థగా లాటిన్ అమెరికాలో మూడవ అతిపెద్ద ఆర్ధిక వ్యవస్థగా ఉంది. ఇది జి -15 మరియు జి -20 ఆర్థిక వ్యవస్థల్లో సభ్యదేశంగా ఉంది. ఇది యునైటెడ్ నేషన్స, ప్రపంచ బ్యాంకు, వరల్డ్ ట్రేడ్ ఆర్గనైజేషన్, మెర్కోసూర్, యూనియన్ ఆఫ్ సౌత్ అమెరికన్ నేషన్స్, లాటిన్ అమెరికా మరియు కరేబియన్ రాష్ట్రాల సంఘం మరియు ఆర్గనైజేషన్ ఆఫ్ ఐబెరో-అమెరికన్ స్టేట్స్ వూవస్థాపక సభ్యదేశంగా ఉంది. ఇది లాటిన్ అమెరికా దేశాలలో అత్యధిక మానవాభివృద్ధి సాధించిన దేశంగా ప్రత్యేకత కలిగి ఉంది. [19] హైటెక్ రంగం అభివృద్ధి మర్కెట్ సైజ్ మరియు స్థిరత్వం కారణంగా[20] 2018 నాటికి అర్జెంటీనా అభివృద్ధి చెందిన దేశంగా వర్గీకరించబడగలదని భావిస్తున్నారు. [21]

పేరువెనుక చరిత్ర[మార్చు]

1536లో వెనిస్ (ఇటలీ) మ్యాపులో మొదటిసారిగా అర్జెంటీనా అనే పదం చోటుచేసుకుంది. [22]పేరు బహుశా స్పానిష్‌కు చెందినదని భావిస్తున్నారు.అయినప్పటికీ ఈ పదానికి అర్ధం ఇటాలియన్ భాషలో ఉంది. ఇటాలియన్ భాషలో అర్జటినో అంటే " వెండితో చేసినది లేక వెండిపూత పూసినది " అని అర్ధం. అయినప్పటికీ ఇది ఫ్రెంచి భాషనుండి ఇటాలియన్ భాషలోకి తీసుకొనబడినదని భావించబడుతుంది.ఫ్రెంచి భాషలో అర్జటీనో అంటే వెండితో చేయబడినది అని భావిస్తున్నారు. 12వ శతాబ్ధం నుండి ఈపదం వాడుకలో ఉందని భావిస్తున్నారు.[23]

ఫ్రెంచ్ పదం అర్జెంటైన్ మరియు అర్జెంటిన్ పదాలకు అర్జెంట్ (వెండి) అని అర్ధం.అలాగే పురాతన ఫ్రెంచిలో అసరిన్ అంటే స్టీల్ అని అర్ధం.స్పెయిన్‌లో స్పిర్ వుడ్‌తో చేసినది అని అర్ధం. ఇటాలియన్‌లో అర్జంటీనా అంటే అర్జంటీనా టెర్రా అంటే వెండి భూమి అని అర్ధం. అర్జంటీనా కోస్టా అంటే వెండి ధర అని అర్ధం.

"అర్జెంటీనా" అనే పేరు బహుశా మొదట వెనిస్ మరియు జెనోయీస్ నావికులు గియోవన్నీ కాబూటో వంటివారు ఉపయోగించారు.స్పానిష్ మరియు పోర్చుగీస్లలో అర్జంటీనా అంటే "వెండి"అని అర్ధం. ప్లాటా మరియు పటా మరియు అంటే తయారు చేయబడినవి అని అర్ధం. వెండి "" ప్లేటేడో "మరియు" ప్రెటటోడో "అని చెప్పబడింది. అర్జెంటీనా మొదటిసారిగా " సియెర్రా డి లా ప్లాటా ( వెండి పర్వతాల పురాణం)తో సంబంధం కలిగి ఉంది. ఇది "లా ప్లాటా బేసిన్ " మొట్టమొదటి యూరోపియన్ అన్వేషకులలో విస్తృతంగా వ్యాపించింది.[24] స్పానిష్‌లో ఈ పదం మొదటిసారిగా " లా అర్జెంటీనా " అని ఉపయోగించబడింది.[upper-alpha 1] 1602లో " మార్టిన్ డెల్ బార్కొ సెంటెనరా " వ్రాసిన పద్యంలో ఈ ప్రాంతాన్ని గురించిన వర్ణన ఉంది.[25]18వ శతాబ్ధంలో అర్జెంటీనా విస్తృతంగా వాడుకలో ఉన్నప్పటికీ ఈప్రాంతాన్ని " వైశ్రాయిలిటీ ఆఫ్ ది రియో లా ప్లేటా " అని స్పానిష్ సాంరాజ్యం అని పేర్కొంది.స్వతంత్రం తరువాత " యునైటెడ్ ప్రొవింస్ ఆఫ్ ది డీ లా ప్లేటా " అని పేర్కొనబడింది.1826లో రూపొందించబడిన సరికొత్త " అర్జెంటీనా రిపబ్లిక్ " అని చట్టబద్ధమైన దస్తావేజులలో పేర్కొనబడింది.[26]సాధారణంగా ఉపయోగించే " అర్జెంటీనా కాంఫిడరేషన్ " కూడా " 1853 అర్జెంటినా కాంసిస్ట్యూషన్ " లో పేర్కొనబడింది.[27]1860లో ప్రెసిడెంషియన్ డిక్రీ దేశం పేరును " అర్జెంటైన్ రిపబ్లిక్ " నిర్ణయించింది. [28] అదే సంవత్సరం కాంసిస్ట్యూషనల్ దిద్దుబాటు 1810 నుండి ఉన్న అన్నింటికీ చట్టబద్దమైన విలువను కల్పించింది.[29][upper-alpha 2]ఇంగ్లీష్ భాషలో దేశం పేరు స్పానిష్ భాషా పదం అయిన " లా అర్జెంటీనాను " అనుకరిస్తూ " ది అర్జంటైన్ " అని సంప్రదాయంగా పిలువబడింది. [30] అర్జెంటీనా రిపబ్లిక్ పేరును కుదిస్తూ చేసిన ది అర్జెంటీనా అనే పేరు 20వ శతాబ్ధంలో నగరికనామంగా మారింది.ప్రస్తుతం దేశం " అర్జెంటీనా " అని పిలువబడుతుంది. [31]

చరిత్ర[మార్చు]

కొలంబియన్ - పూర్వ చరిత్ర[మార్చు]

Stencilled hands on the cave's wall
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago


The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.

[10]

Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations,{ [32]

which can be divided into three main groups.

[33]

The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile

[34]

and the Kom and Wichi in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa, Minuane and Guaraní in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence;

[32]

the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's center, and the Huarpe in the center-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.

[32]

కాలనీ శకం[మార్చు]

Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively.

[11]

In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.

[35]

Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la PlataPeru and Chile.

[36]

Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565.

[37]

Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba.

[38]

Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580.

[39]

San Luis was established in 1596.

[37]

The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.

[40]

Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807.

[41]

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.

[42]

స్వతంత్రం మరియు అంతర్యుద్ధం[మార్చు]

Painting of San Martín holding the Argentine flag
Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru

Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,

[12]

the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.

[42]

In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba,

[43]

but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states.

[44]

Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence.

[45]

The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.

[45]

In 1816 the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence.

[46]

One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.

[47][upper-alpha 3]

In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.

[49]

The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.

[50]

Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.

[51]

During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.

[52]

His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.

[53]

అధినిక దేశంగా అభివృద్ధి[మార్చు]

The people gathered in front of the Buenos Aires Cabildo during the May Revolution.

Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.

[54]

The Argentina Centennial was celebrated on 25 May 1910.

Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest

[13]

developed nation

[14]

in the world.Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold:[55] from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from

100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons)

per year, while frozen beef exports increased from

25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons)

per year,

[56]

placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.

[57]

Its railway mileage rose from

503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi). [58]

Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy skyrocketed from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later.

[57]

Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:

[58]

In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and The Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's.

[13]

Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:

[59]

after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labor-intensive in the 1930s.

[60]

In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression.

[61]

ఇంఫేమస్ దశాబ్ధం[మార్చు]

In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,

[13]

this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.

[15]

Official presidential portrait of Juan Domingo Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1948

Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in a fraudulent election, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A new military coup toppled the government, and Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers a month before the end of World War II in Europe. The minister of welfare, Juan Domingo Perón, was fired and jailed because of his high popularity among workers. His liberation was forced by a massive popular demonstration, and he went on to win the 1946 election.

[62]

పెరోనియం[మార్చు]

Perón created a political movement known as Peronism. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full employment. The economy, however, began to decline in 1950 because of over-expenditure. His highly popular wife, Eva Perón, played a central political role. She pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in 1947,

[63]

and developed an unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society.

[64]

However, her declining health did not allow her to run for the vice-presidency in 1951, and she died of cancer the following year. Perón was reelected in 1951, even surpassing his 1946 performance. In 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in an ill-fated attempt to kill the President. A few months later, during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and went into exile in Spain.

[65]

The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed Peronism and banned all of its manifestations; nevertheless, Peronists kept an organized underground. Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the following elections.

[66]

He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.

[67]

But Senate Chief José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation, becoming president instead; elections were repealed and Peronism proscribed again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an overall increase in prosperity; however his attempts to legalize Peronism resulted in his overthrow in 1966 by the Juan Carlos Onganía-led coup d'état called the Argentine Revolution, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.

[68]

డర్టీ వార్[మార్చు]

The "Dirty War"

(స్పానిష్: Guerra Sucia)

was part of Operation Condor, for which the United States government provided technical support and supplied military aid to during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations. The Dirty War involved state terrorism in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism.

[69]

[70][71]


Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas

[72]

and alleged sympathizers.

[73]

Some 10,000 of the "disappeared" were believed to be guerrillas of the Montoneros (MPM), and the Marxist People's Revolutionary Army (ERP).

[74][75][76]

The guerrillas were responsible for causing at least 6,000 casualties among the military, police forces and civilian population according to a National Geographic Magazine article in the mid-1980s.

[77]

The disappeared ones were considered to be a political or ideological threat to the military junta and their disappearances an attempt to silence the opposition and break the determination of the guerillas.

[78]

Raúl Alfonsín, first democratically elected president following the military government.

Declassified documents of the Chilean secret police cite an official estimate by the Batallón de Inteligencia 601 of 22,000 killed or "disappeared" between 1975 and mid-1978. During this period, in which it was later revealed 8,625 "disappeared" in the form of PEN (Poder Ejecutivo Nacional, anglicized as "National Executive Power") detainees who were held in clandestine detention camps throughout Argentina before eventually being freed under diplomatic pressure.

[79]

The number of people believed to have been killed or "disappeared", depending on the source, range from 9,089 to 30,000 in the period from 1976 to 1983, when the military was forced from power following Argentina's defeat in the Falklands War.

[80][81]

The National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons estimates that around 13,000 were disappeared.

[82]

After democratic government was restored, Congress passed legislation to provide compensation to victims' families. Some 11,000 Argentines have applied to the relevant authorities and received up to US $200,000 each as monetary compensation for the loss of loved ones during the military dictatorship.

[83]

The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as in some senses the long political war started in 1969. Trade unionists were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries as early as 1969, and individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance since 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (translates to Operation of Independence) in 1975, have also been suggested as dates for the beginning of the Dirty War.

Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu.

[84]

The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, let Héctor José Cámpora be the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued a pardon for condemned guerrilla members and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.

[85]

On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Cámpora resigned, overwhelmed by political violence, and Perón won the September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party

[86]

and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion,

[87]

stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province.

[88]

Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the three armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso.

[89]

The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976 Montoneros had lost near 2,000 members; by 1977, the ERP was completely defeated. A severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly annihilated, ending the guerrilla threat. Nevertheless, the junta stayed in power. Then head of state General Leopoldo Galtieri launched Operation Rosario, which escalated into the Falklands War

(స్పానిష్: Guerra de Malvinas);

within two months Argentina was defeated by the United Kingdom. Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic rule.

[90]

Contemporary era[మార్చు]

Photograph of Cristina Kirchner.
Cristina Fernández and Néstor Kirchner during the Bicentenario. The couple occupied the presidency of Argentina for 12 years, him from 2003 to 2007 and her from 2007 to 2015.

Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,

[91][92]

which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation.

[93]

Menem embraced neo-liberal policies:

[94]

a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. The economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing unemployment and recession;

[95]

led by Fernando de la Rúa, the UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.

[96]

Mauricio Macri, incumbent President of Argentina

De la Rúa kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.

[95]

A massive capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign.

[97]

Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the fixed exchange rate established by Menem,

[98]

causing many Argentinians to lose a significant portion of their savings. By the late 2002 the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward.

[99]

Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president.

[100]

Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies

[99]

laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth.

[101]

Under his administration Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund,

[102]

purged the military of officers with doubtful human rights records,

[103]

nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,

[104][upper-alpha 4]

ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Juntas' crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007

[106]

and reelected in 2011.

On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October, Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect. Macri is the first democratically elected non-radical or peronist president since 1916.

[107]

He took office on 10 December 2015. In April 2016, the Macri Government introduced austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and public deficits.

[108]

చిత్రమాలిక[మార్చు]

వెలుపలి లింకులు[మార్చు]

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; Nombre అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  2. "Argentina – Idioma". argentina.gov.ar. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  3. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; ethnologue అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  4. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; statesmen అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  5. ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; encuesta అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: సరైన <ref> కాదు; imf అనే పేరుగల ref లకు పాఠ్యమేమీ ఇవ్వలేదు
  7. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  8. "Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  9. Constitution of Argentina, art. 3.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Crow 1992, p. 128.
  12. 12.0 12.1 మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Becoming a serious country". The Economist. London. 3 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Argentina is thus not a "developing country". Uniquely, it achieved development and then lost it again. 
  16. మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core.
  17. మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core
  18. మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core
  19. Human Development Report 2016, Statistical Annex, Table 1, UNDP
  20. "The 2010 Legatum Prosperity Index". London: Legatum Institute. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. [The country has a] foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods ... Argentina's economy appears stable, but confidence in financial institutions remains low. 
  21. "Country and Lending Groups". 
  22. The name Argentine (Spanish) El nombre de Argentina Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. Etymology of argentin / -e (French)
  24. మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core.
  25. Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
  26. Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
  27. Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
  28. Rosenblat 1964, p. 78.
  29. Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
  30. "Definition of Argentina in Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford, UK: Oxford Dictionaries. 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. 
  31. "The Definite Article: Part II", Study Spanish
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Edwards 2008, p. 12.
  33. Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19.
  34. Edwards 2008, p. 13.
  35. Crow 1992, pp. 129–132.
  36. Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Crow 1992, p. 353.
  38. Crow 1992, p. 134.
  39. Crow 1992, p. 135.
  40. Crow 1992, p. 347.
  41. Crow 1992, p. 421.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff.
  43. Rock 1987, p. 81.
  44. Rock 1987, pp. 82–83.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40.
  46. మూస:Sfnm/core; మూస:Sfnm/core.
  47. Galasso 2011, vol. I.
  48. Galasso 2011, vol. I.
  49. Lewis 2003, p. 41.
  50. Lewis 2003, p. 43.
  51. Lewis 2003, p. 45.
  52. Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47.
  53. Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50.
  54. Galasso 2011, vol. I.
  55. Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30.
  56. Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Cruz 1990, p. 10.
  58. 58.0 58.1 Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3.
  59. Galasso 2011, vol. I.
  60. Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38.
  61. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  62. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  63. Barnes 1978, p. 3.
  64. Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff.
  65. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  66. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  67. Robben 2011, p. 34.
  68. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  69. Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M. Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007
  70. Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994
  71. "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976
  72. "Argentina's Dirty War". 
  73. "Orphaned in Argentina's dirty war, man is torn between two families", The Washington Post, 11 February 2010
  74. "El ex líder de los Montoneros entona un "mea culpa" parcial de su pasado". El Mundo (in Spanish). 4 May 1995. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. 
  75. A 32 años de la caída en combate de Mario Roberto Santucho y la Dirección Histórica del PRT-ERP. Cedema.org. 
  76. ''Determinants Of Gross Human Rights Violations By State And State-Sponsored Actors In Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, And Argentina (1960–1990)', Wolfgang S. Heinz & Hugo Frühling, p. 626, Springer, 1999, Google Books
  77. National Geographic, Volume 170, p. 247, National Geographic Society, 1986
  78. Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (September 2005). "Anthropology at War?: What Argentina's Dirty War Can Teach Us". Anthropology News. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  79. Political Injustice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, Anthony W. Pereira, p. 134, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005
  80. Obituary The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009
  81. Estimate of Deaths and Disappearances by 601st Intelligence Battalion (PDF). DINA Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina. July 1978. pp. A8. 
  82. "Una duda histórica: no se sabe cuántos son los desaparecidos", Clarin, 10 June 2003
  83. Wright, Thomas C. State terrorism in Latin America, p. 158, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007
  84. Robben 2011, p. 127.
  85. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  86. Robben 2011, pp. 76–77.
  87. Robben 2011, p. 145.
  88. Robben 2011, p. 148.
  89. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  90. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  91. మూస:Cite Argentine law
  92. మూస:Cite Argentine law
  93. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  94. Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6.
  95. 95.0 95.1 Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9.
  96. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  97. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  98. Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 12.
  99. 99.0 99.1 Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13.
  100. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  101. Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16.
  102. Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15.
  103. Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14.
  104. మూస:Cite Argentine law
  105. మూస:Cite Argentine law
  106. Galasso 2011, vol. II.
  107. "Mauricio Macri, el primer presidente desde 1916 que no es peronista ni radical" (in స్పానిష్). Los Andes. 22 November 2015. 
  108. Carrelli Lynch, Guido. "Macri anunció medidas para amortiguar la inflación". Clarín (in spanish). Retrieved 25 June 2016. 



ఉదహరింపు పొరపాటు: <ref> tags exist for a group named "upper-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="upper-alpha"/> tag was found, or a closing </ref> is missing