రాజారాణి ఆలయం

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రాజారాణి ఆలయం
రాజారాణి ఆలయం
స్థానము
దేశము:భారతదేశం
రాష్ట్రము:ఒడిషా
ప్రదేశము:భుబనేశ్వర్
భౌగోళికాంశాలు:20°14′36.4″N 85°50′36.68″E / 20.243444°N 85.8435222°E / 20.243444; 85.8435222Coordinates: 20°14′36.4″N 85°50′36.68″E / 20.243444°N 85.8435222°E / 20.243444; 85.8435222
నిర్మాణశైలి మరియు సంస్కృతి
నిర్మాణ శైలి:కళింగ పంచరథ శైలి

రాజారాణి ఆలయం 11వ శతాబ్దానికి చెందిన హిందూ దేవాలయం. ఇది ఒడిషా రాష్ట్రంలోని భుబనేశ్వర్ పట్టణంలో ఉన్నది. ఇది ఒకప్పుడు ఇంద్రేశ్వర ఆలయంగా పిలువబడేదని భావిస్తారు. ఈ దేవాలయ కుడ్యాలపై ఉన్న శృంగార శిల్పాల కారణంగా స్థానికులు ఈ ఆలయాన్ని 'ప్రేమాలయం'గా పిలుస్తారు. ఈ ఆలయం ఎత్తైన తిన్నెపై "పంచరథ" శైలిలో నిర్మించబడింది. ఈ ఆలయంలో గర్భగుడి, జగన్మోహన మంటపం ఉన్నాయి. ఈ ఆలయనిర్మాణానికి మడ్డిఎరుపు, పసుపు ఇసుకరాళ్లను ఉపయోగించారు. ఈ రాళ్లను స్థానికంగా రాజారాణి అని పిలుస్తారు. ఈ దేవాలయం గర్భగుడిలో ప్రస్తుతం ఎటువంటి విగ్రహం లేదు. ఈ ఆలయ నిర్మాణం ఆధారంగా ఇది శివాలయంగా నిర్ధారించారు.

Various historians place the original construction date between the 11th and 12th centuries, and have placed it roughly belonging to the same period as the Jagannath Temple at Puri. The architecture of other temples in central India is believed to have originated with this temple, the notable ones being the Khajuraho temples and Totesvara Mahadeo temple in Kadawa.[clarification needed] There are various sculptures in the walls around the temple, and the vimana[clarification needed], depicting scenes of the marriage of Shiva, Nataraja, Parvati, and include tall, slender, sophisticated nayikas[clarification needed] in various roles and moods such as turning her head from an emaciated ascetic, fondling her child, holding a branch of tree, attending to her toilet, looking into a mirror, taking off her anklet, caressing her pet bird and playing a musical instrument. Rajarani Temple is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) as a ticketed[clarification needed] monument.

చరిత్ర[మార్చు]

Based on the sculptural architectural style, the temple is dated to the mid-11th century.[1] Brown groups the temple along with Anant Vasudev Temple and places it around the 11th–12th centuries. Another survey of Orissa temples carried out by S. K. Saraswati in 1953 yielded a similar date.[2] Panigrahi, who did a comprehensive analysis of Orissan temples, gives an unspecified date between Lingaraj Temple and Mukteswara Temple.[clarification needed][3] Fergusson believes construction of the temple was begun by around 1105.[4] George Michell believes the temple was built during the same time as Lingaraja Temple.[5] Rajarani Temple roughly belongs to the same period as the Jagannath Temple at Puri. The architecture of other temples in central India originated from the temple. The notable ones in the category are the Khajuraho temples and Totesvara Mahadeo temple in Kadawa.[6] Scholars believe based on the style that the temple might have been built by Somavamsi kings who migrated from Central Indis to Orissa during the period.[7] Rajarani temple is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) as a ticketed monument.[1][8]

నిర్మాణశైలి[మార్చు]

రాజారాణి ఆలయం ప్లాను

The Orissan temples have two parts namely the sanctum (deul or vimana) and the other is place from where pilgrims view the sanctum (called jagamohana). The initial deul temples were without the jagamohana as seen in some of the older temples in Bhubaneswar while the later temples had two additional structures namely nata-mandapa (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings). The vimana is square in plan, and the walls are variegated by ressaults[clarification needed] (called rathas or pagas).[9] Amalaka (also called mastaka), a stone disk with ridges on the rim, is placed over the bada (tower) of the temple. Rajarani Temple stands on a raised platform. The temple was constructed of dull red and yellow sandstone locally called "Rajarani".[7]

విమానం[మార్చు]

It is pancharatha in plan with a curvilinear superstructure (rekha shikhara) 18m(55 ft) tall. The vimana (tower) is surrounded by a cluster of miniature towers with double crowning elements and appears round, unlike other temples in Bhubaneswar but like the towers of Khajuraho temples. The temple stands on a plinth with three mouldings. The bada consists of five divisions instead of the three divisions usually found in other temples. The vimana rises to a height of 17.98 metres (59.0 ft) from the basement.[7] The vimana (sanctum) measures 10.25 ft (3.12 m)*10.25 ft (3.12 m) from the inside, 31 ft (9.4 m)*29 ft (8.8 m) from the outside.[10] Its spire is decorated with clusters of turrets (replication of the spire itself) emerging from the rib of the spire. The temple has panchanga bada, or five divisions, namely, pabhaga, talajangha, bandhana, uparajangha and baranda. The lowermost division, called the pabhaga, has five decorative mouldings, namely, khura, kumbha, patta, kani and basanta. The superstructure (gandi) of the temple has a number of miniature turrets (angashikharas). The superstructure is crowned with a fluted disc-shaped architectural piece called an amalaka, and a vase (kalasa) surmounts it as the crowning finial.[1][11][12]

జగన్మోహన మంటపం[మార్చు]

The entrance to a structure with depictions of nagins and guarding deities in the doorjambs, with a tower in the background
The front portion of the jagamohana depicts nagins and guarding deities in the doorjambs, with vimana in the background.

The jagamohana (porch), though demonstrating a pyramidal structure, is yet to take on the status of a complete structure on its own. It bears signs of the repair done in 1903 when it collapsed into ruins. The jagamohana measures 17.83 ft (5.43 m)*17.83 ft (5.43 m) from the inside and 36 ft (11 m)*36 ft (11 m) from the outside.[10] The tiered (pidha) jagamohana and the interior are plain, possibly left incomplete. The plan of the jagamohana is square compared to the rectangular ones present in earlier temples.[1]

శిల్పాలు[మార్చు]

The sculptures have a depth that was lacking in the Mukteswara Temple sculptures.[11] The slightly projecting entrance is flanked by round thick columns entwined by naga on the left. Guardians of the eight directions project from the base of the temple in the eight directions, starting from the gateway in a clockwise direction around the porch and the deul, ending at the torana (entrance).[11] The other noted sculptures are naga-nagi sthambha, saiva dwarapalas on the entrance doorjambs, and lakulisa on the lintel of entrance, above which is the architrave of Navagrahas.[clarification needed] The best-preserved sculptures of the temple are the standing astadikpalas on the central façade of kanika, appearing on the jangha portion of the bada clad in diaphanous drapery. The image of Varuna is intact and notable for its body ornamentation, coiffure and facial expression. Scenes of the marriage of Shiva, Nataraja, and Parvati are the cult images present in the temple. There are tall, slender, sophisticated nayikas gracing the walls of the sanctum depicted in various roles and moods in amorous dalliance with actions such as turning her head from an emaciated ascetic, fondling her child, holding a branch of tree, attending to her toilet, looking into mirror, taking off her anklet, caressing her pet bird and playing instrument. There are also erotic (mithuna) figures carved in high relief on the projecting portions of the uparajangha. The other decorative motifs are carved in the shape of vyala, jagrata and gajakranta. The scroll motifs are of foliage, creepers and vines (vanalata), each containing lush foliage independent of any stalk or vine.[1][clarification needed]

మతపరమైన ప్రత్యేకత[మార్చు]

గర్భగుడి కుడ్యంపైనున్న ఒక శిల్పం

ఈ ఆలయపు తిన్నె భాగంలో చెక్కబడిన దళాలతో కూడిన పద్మాలను పరిశీలించిన చరిత్రకారుడు ఎం.ఎం.గంగూలీ ఈ ఆలయం వైష్ణవ ఆలయంగా ఊహించాడు. అదీ కాకుండా భువనేశ్వర్ చుట్టుపట్ల వున్న శివాలయాల పేర్లు 'ఈశ్వర ' అనే పేరును చివర కలిగి ఉన్నాయి. ఉదా: పరశురామేశ్వర, బ్రహ్మేశ్వర, మిత్రేశ్వర్. కానీ ఈ దేవాలయం పేరు అసాధారణంగా ఉంది.[clarification needed] పైగా ఈ ఆలయంలో ఏ దేవాతా మూర్తి విగ్రహం లేదు. ఈ కారణాల వల్ల ఇది వైష్ణవాలయం అయివుండవచ్చు అనేది ఎం.ఎం.గంగూలీ అభిప్రాయం. అయితే ఈ ఆలయం శివాలయంగా నిరూపించే కొన్ని లక్షణాలు మనకు కనిపిస్తాయి. ఉదాహరణకు శైవులైన చండ ప్రచండ ద్వారపాలకుల విగ్రహాలు ఈ ఆలయంలో ఉన్నాయి.[clarification needed] with jatamukha, and a garland of skulls reaching up to[clarification needed]and a snake. K. C. Panigrahi believes that, based on the Ekamra Purana, the temple was originally called Indrevara and that it was positioned to the east of Siddheswara Temple.[7] The image of Lakulisha, the founder of the Pasupatha sect of Saivisim, in a seated posture with yogamuthra along with his disciples, is found in the lintel of the jagamohana. Images of eight bearded ascetics are arranged on both sides of the images of Lakulisha. There are three panels on the facade of the main temple showing images of Shiva dancing with his consort Parvathi in the company of attendants playing musical instruments. A carving depicting the marriage of Shiva and Parvathi is on the western side[clarification needed] below the central niche.[13] The presence of Naga and Nagini at the entrance led to a local belief that it is the king (Raja) and queen (Rani) who are associated with the temple, leading to the name Rajarani, but this belief is not accepted by historians.[7]

ఉత్సవాలు[మార్చు]

ఒడిషా రాష్ట్ర ప్రభుత్వపు పర్యాటక శాఖ ప్రతి యేటా జనవరి 18 నుండి జనవరి 20వరకు ఈ ఆలయ ప్రాంగణంలో రాజారాణి సంగీతోత్సవాలను నిర్వహిస్తుంది.[14] ఈ ఉత్సవాలలో హిందుస్తానీ, కర్ణాటక, ఒడిస్సీ సంప్రదాయ సంగీతాలకు సమాన ప్రాధాన్యతనిస్తారు. ఈ మూడు రోజుల సంగీతోత్సవాలలో పాల్గొనడానికి దేశంలోని పలుప్రాంతాల నుండి సంగీత కళాకారులు వస్తారు.[15] 2003 నుండి ప్రారంభమైన ఈ ఉత్సవాలకు భువనేశ్వర్ మ్యూజిక్ సర్కిల్ (బి.ఎం.సి) సహకారాన్ని అందిస్తుంది.[16]

ఇవి కూడా చూడండి[మార్చు]

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 2013-03-17. Cite web requires |website= (help)
  2. Smith 1994, p. 8
  3. Smith 1994, p. 10
  4. Smith 1994, p. 15
  5. Michell, George (1977). The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780226532301.
  6. Ghosh 1950, p. 26
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Parida, A.N. (1999). Early Temples of Orissa (1st సంపాదకులు.). New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers. pp. 97–101. ISBN 81-7169-519-1.
  8. Smith 1994, p. 123
  9. Ghosh 1950, pp. 21-22
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ghosh 1950, p. 74
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Jāvīd, ʻAlī; Javeed, Tabassum (2008). World Heritage Monuments. Algora Publishing. pp. 192–194. ISBN 9780875864846.
  12. Allen, Margaret Prosser (1991). Ornament in Indian Architecture. Associated University Press Inc. p. 207. ISBN 0-87413-399-8.
  13. Anand, Swami P.; Swami Parmeshwaranand (2004). Encyclopaedia of the Śaivism. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 244–245. ISBN 81-7625-427-4.
  14. "సీజన్ ఆఫ్ మేళాస్". డైలీ న్యూస్. శ్రీలంక. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2015 – వయా HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  15. "Bhubaneswar hosts Rajarani music festival". Hindustan Times. Bhubaneswar. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2015 – వయా HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  16. "Orissa takes classical music back into the temples". Hindustan Times. Bhubaneswar. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2015 – వయా HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)

అధోజ్ఞాపికలు[మార్చు]

బయటి లింకులు[మార్చు]