ధార్మిక శాస్త్రములో ఏకేశ్వరవాదం అనగా ఒకే దేవుణ్ణి ఆరాధించాలనే విశ్వాసం. ఏకేశ్వరవాదం అనాదిగా వస్తున్న విశ్వాసం. గ్రీకులలో, భారతీయులలో, అరబ్బులలో, చైనీయులలో ప్రధానంగా కానవచ్చే విశ్వాసం. ఈ వాదం ప్రకారం దేవుడు వున్నాడు మరియు ఒక్కడే. ఈ విశ్వాసము ఇబ్రాహీం మతములయిన యూద మతము, క్రైస్తవ మతము, ఇస్లాం మతము మరియు ప్లాటోనిక్ మతములలో కానవస్తుంది.
మూలము మరియు అభివృద్ధి [మార్చు]
ఏకేశ్వరవాదం, అనాదిగా వినవస్తున్న వస్తువే. ఏక + ఈశ్వర + వాదము, అనగా ఒకే దేవుణ్ణి తన దైవంగా స్వీకరించే విశ్వసం. గ్రీకులలోనూ ఈ విశ్వాసం కానవస్తుంది. దీని అర్థము, 'ఏక' లేదా 'ఒక్క'.  అనగా, దేవుడు ఒక్కడే. దేవుడిని పుంలింగముగా భావించే విశ్వసం కానవస్తుంది. ఆంగ్లంలో "మోనోధీయిజం" అనే పదాన్ని హెన్రీ మోర్ (1614–1687), మొదటి సారిగా ఉపయోగించాడు.
ఈ విశ్వాసము మెల్లమెల్లగా అభివృద్ధి చెందుతూ, హెనోథీయిజం (దేవతలు ఎందరున్ననూ, ఏకేశ్వరుణ్ణి పూజించడం) మరియు మోనోలాట్రిజం (అనేక దేవుళ్ళ ఉనికిని అంగీకరిస్తూ, ఒకే దేవుణ్ణి పూజించడం) అనే విశ్వాసంగా రూపొందినది. కంచు యుగం తరువాత మోషే, జొరాస్టర్ మొదలగు ప్రవక్తలు ప్రకటించిన మతాలలో వాటి గ్రంధాలలో ఏకేశ్వరవాదం కానవస్తుంది. వైదిక కాలంలోనూ ఏకేశ్వరవాదం ఆమోదింపబడినది. ఆ తరువాత క్రైస్తవ మతం, ఆతరువాత ఇస్లాం మతంలోనూ ఈ ఏకేశ్వరవాదం ప్రజలలో విస్తృతంగా ఆమోదింపబడినది. ఇస్లాంలో ఈ ఏకేశ్వరవాదాన్నే తౌహీద్ అంటారు. ఈ తౌహీద్ ను పునస్థాపించినవాడిగా ఇబ్రాహీం ప్రవక్త గుర్తింపబడ్డాడు, మరియు "హనీఫ్" (ఏకేశ్వరవాదాన్ని పునస్థాపించినవాడు) అని పేరు పొందాడు.
వివిధ రకములు [మార్చు]
Some argue that there are various forms of monotheism, including:
- en:Henotheism involves devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of other gods. Similarly, monolatrism is the worship of a single deity independent of the ontological claims regarding that deity.
- en:Deism posits the existence of a single impersonal god that does not intervene in the world.
- en:Monistic Theism is the type of monotheism found in Hinduism, encompassing pantheistic and panentheistic monism, and at the same time the concept of a personal god.
- en:Pantheism holds that the universe itself is God. The existence of a transcendent supreme extraneous to nature is denied.
- en:Panentheism, is a form of monistic monotheism which holds that God is all of existence, containing, but not identical to, the Universe. The 'one God' is omnipotent and all-pervading, the universe is part of God, and God is both immanent and transcendent.
- en:Substance monotheism, found in some indigenous African religions, holds that the many gods are different forms of a single underlying substance.
On the surface, monotheism is in contrast with బహుఈశ్వరవాదం, which is the worship of several deities. Polytheism is however reconcilable with Inclusive monotheism, which claims that all deities are just different names or forms of a single god. This approach is common in Hinduism, e.g. in en:Smartism. en:Exclusive monotheism, on the other hand, actively opposes polytheism. Monotheism is often contrasted with theistic en:dualism (ditheism). However, in dualistic theologies as that of en:Gnosticism, the two deities are not of equal rank, and the role of the Gnostic demiurge is closer to that of సైతాను in Christian theology than that of a diarch on equal terms with God (who is represented in pantheistic fashion, as en:Pleroma).
పూర్వ చరిత్ర [మార్చు]
In ancient Egypt [మార్చు]
Ancient Middle-Eastern religions may have worshipped a single God within a pantheon and the abolition of all others, as in the case of the Aten cult in the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten. Iconoclasm during this pharaoh's rule is considered a chief origin for the subsequent destruction by some groups of idols, holding that no other god before the preferred deity (dually and subtly acknowledging the existence of the other gods, but only as foes to be destroyed for their drawing of attention away from the primary deity).
Other issues such as en:Divine Right of Kings may possibly also stem from pharaonic laws on the ruler being the en:demigod or representative of the Creator on Earth. The massive సమాధిs in the en:Egyptian pyramids which aligned with en:astronomical observations, perhaps exemplify this relationship between the pharaoh and the heavens.
జొరాస్ట్రియన్ మతము [మార్చు]
Though holding a dualistic or even polytheistic worldview/cosmology, Zoroastrianism is considered by some to be one of the earliest monotheistic religions. Additionally, the Zoroastrian faith includes characteristics different from those found in purely monotheistic worldviews, including worship of subordinate nature-spirits and the use of fire-reverance.
In Zoroaster's revelation, Ahura Mazda is a transcendental and universal god, the one uncreated creator (standard appellation) and to whom all worship is ultimately directed. However, Zoroaster also perceives Mazda to be wholly good, and that his creation is wholly good. In conflict with creation is anti-creation, evident in the created world as decay and disorder. Since anti-creation is purely destructive it cannot have been created (otherwise it would self-destruct) and hence must - like the Creator himself - be uncreated.
ఇబ్రాహీం మతములు [మార్చు]
The major source of monotheism in the modern en:Western World is the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, the source of Judaism, which was created from the 13th century BCE to the 4th century BCE. Judaism may have received influences from various non-biblical religions present in Egypt and Syria. This can be seen by the Torah's reference to Egyptian culture in Genesis and the story of Moses, as well as the mention of Hittite and Hurrian cultures of Syria in the Genesis story of Abraham. Although, orthodox Jews would dispute this based on the Jewish fundamental that the Torah was received from God on Mount Sinai in 1313 BCE (Hebrew year 2448). References to other cultures are inclued to understand the specific references of the topic discussed or to give context to the narrative.
In traditional Jewish thought, which provided the basis of the Christian and Islamic religions, monotheism was regarded as its most basic belief. Judaism and Islam have traditionally attempted to interpret scripture as exclusively monotheistic whilst Christianity adopts Trinitarianism, a more complex form of monotheism, as a result of considering the Holy Spirit to be God, and attributing divinity to Jesus, a Judean Jew, in the first century AD, defining him as the Son of God. Thus, "Father, Son and Holy Spirit".
యూదుల దృష్టికోణం [మార్చు]
Judaism is one of the oldest known monotheistic faiths. The best-known Jewish statements of monotheism occur in the Shema prayer, the Ten Commandments and Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith, Second Principle:
|“||దేవుడు, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object that is infinitely divisible. Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity. This is referred to in the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4): "Hear Israel, the మూస:LORD is our God, the మూస:LORD is one."||”|
Judaism's earliest history, beliefs, laws, and practices are preserved and taught in the Torah (the en:Hebrew Bible) which provides a clear textual source for the rise and development of what is named Judaism's en:Ethical Monotheism which means that:
- (1) There is one God from whom emanates one morality for all humanity. (2) God's primary demand of people is that they act decently toward one another...The God of ethical monotheism is the God first revealed to the world in the Hebrew Bible. Through it, we can establish God's four primary characteristics:
- God is supernatural.
- God is personal.
- God is good.
- God is holy.
- ...in the study of Hebrew history: Israel's monotheism was an ethical monotheism. Dennis Prager
When Moses returned with the Ten Commandments, the second of those stated that "you shall have no other gods before me" (en:Exodus 20:3), right after the first, which affirmed the existence of God. Furthermore, Israelites recite the en:Shema Yisrael ("Hear O' Israel") which partly says, "Hear, O' Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Monotheism was and is the central tenet of the Israelite and the Jewish religion.
|Hebrew||שמע ישראל יי אלהנו יי אחד|
|Common transliteration||Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad|
|English||Hear, O Israel! The మూస:LORD is our God! The మూస:LORD is One!|
The literal word meanings are roughly as follows:
- Shema — 'listen' or 'hear.' The word also implies comprehension.
- Yisrael — 'Israel', in the sense of the people or congregation of Israel
- Adonai — often translated as 'Lord', it is used in place of the Tetragrammaton
- Eloheinu — 'our God', a plural noun (said to imply majesty rather than plural number) with a pronominal suffix ('our')
- Echad — 'one'
In this case, Elohim is used in the plural as a form of respect and not polytheism.
Gen.1:26 And Elohim said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
Elohim is morphologically plural in form in Hebrew, but generally takes singular agreement when it refers to the God of Israel (so the verb meaning "said" in this verse is vayyomer ויאמר with singular inflection, and not vayyomru ויאמרו with plural inflection), and yet in this case the "our" and "us" seems to create a presumption of plurality, though it may just be God talking to angels and not another god.
Judaism, however, insists that the "మూస:LORD is One," as in the Shema, and at least two interpretations exist to explain the Torah's use of the plural form. The first is that the plural form "Elohim" is analogous to the royal plural as used in English. The second is that, in order to set an example for human kings, Elohim consulted with his court (the angels, just created) before making a major decision (creating man).
క్రైస్తవుల దృష్టికోణం [మార్చు]
Christians believe in one God. Historically, most Christian churches have taught that the nature of God is a mystery; something that must be revealed by special revelation rather than deduced through general revelation. Among Early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of Godhead, with some factions arguing for the deity of Jesus and others calling for a unitarian conception of God. These issues of Christology were to form one of the main subjects of contention at the First Council of Nicea.
The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops' (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom.
ఇస్లామీయ దృష్టికోణం [మార్చు]
The holy book of Islam, the Qur'an, asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation. The indivisibility of God implies the indivisibility of God's (called Allah in Arabic) sovereignty which in turn leads to the conception of universe as a just and coherent moral universe rather than an existential and moral chaos (as in polytheism). Similarly the Qur'an rejects the binary modes of thinking such as the idea of duality of God by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act and that the evil forces have no power to create anything. God in Islam is a universal god rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil.
Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession. To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Qur'an. Muslims believe that the entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid (Oneness of God).
బహాయీల దృష్టికోణం [మార్చు]
The Oneness of God is one of the core teachings of the బహాయి విశ్వాసం. Bahá'ís believe that there is one supernatural being, God, who has created all existence. God is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty."
చైనీయులు దృష్టికోణం [మార్చు]
The orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of China since at least the Shang Dynasty (1766 BC) until the modern period centered on the worship of Shangdi (literally "Above Sovereign", generally translated as "God") or Heaven as an omnipotent force. This faith system pre-dated the development of en:Confucianism and en:Taoism and the introduction of Buddhism and Christianity. It has features of monotheism in that Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, endowed with personality but no corporeal form. From the writings of కన్ఫ్యూషియస్ in the en:Analects, we find that Confucius himself believed that Heaven cannot be deceived, Heaven guides people's lives and maintains a personal relationship with them, and that Heaven gives tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and morality. However, this faith system was not truly monotheistic since other lesser gods and spirits, which varied with locality, were also worshiped along with Shangdi. Still, variants such as Mohism approached high monotheism, teaching that the function of lesser gods and ancestral spirits is merely to carry out the will of Shangdi, akin to angels in Western civilization. In Mozi's Will of Heaven (天志), he writes:
|“||"I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing. This has been so from antiquity to the present."
Worship of Shangdi and Heaven in ancient China includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi, usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice. Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of Taoism and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions in China, including terminology used by early Christians in China.
భారతీయ మతములు [మార్చు]
హిందూ మతము [మార్చు]
In Hinduism, views are broad and range from monism, pantheism to panentheism – alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars – to monotheism (also see Hindu denominations). Advaitas, rather than entirely in keeping with essential monotheism, claims to possess the religious truth of monism. There exist many different Hindu sects devoted to different avatars, it is understood that each is really either Vishnu or Shiva. Furthermore, the Brahma Samhita states that Vishnu is like milk and Shiva is yogurt. Several other personal forms of God are elaborated in the Puranas as divine descents, aspects, incarnations, or manifestations of Brahman, the transcendent and immanent reality. All Upanishads teach that there is a supreme Absolute Reality, Brahman – the Infinite One, including all that is manifest and unmanifest.
Into deep darkness fall those who follow the immanent. Into deeper darkness fall those who follow the transcendent. He who knows the transcendent and the immanent, with the immanent overcomes death, and with the transcendent reaches immortality. (Shukla Yajur Veda, Isha Upanishad 12-14)
The four major sects of modern Hinduism - Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism, all believe in one god but differ in their conceptions. Smartas, who follow the Advaita philosophy of absolute monism, venerate various personal forms of God as merely multiple manifestations of the same divinity, Brahman. Absolute monists see one unity in all there is, with all conceptions and names of personal deities as no more than different aspects of the Supreme Being, like a single beam of light separated into colors by a prism. Some of the Smarta aspects of God include Devi, Vishnu, Ganesha, and Shiva. It is the Smarta view that dominates the view of Hinduism in the West. Smartas are followers of Advaita who can select an "Ishta-devata" (the chosen personal deity) to be worshiped. In contrast with Smarta/Advaita, this is not the case with other predomninant sects such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism, which follow an established singular concept of God, as panentheistic monistic monotheism.
Vaishnavism is one of the earliest implicit manifestations of monotheism in the traditions of Vedas. Svayam Bhagavan is a Sanskrit term for the original deity of the Supreme God worshiped across many traditions of the Vaishnavism, the monotheistic absolute deity. This term is often applied to Krishna in some branches of Vaishnavism.
All Hindu scriptures (Vedas, Upanishads, and the Bhagavad Gita) ultimately stress the oneness of the Absolute Reality and describe God as the Eternal Truth that is unborn, immortal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent. Many scholars interpret verses as either pantheistic monism (like in Advaita) or panentheistic monism (all other schools of thought). Pramana or epistemological dialectics are put forth by various philosophical schools of Hinduism with their views on monism and God's omnipresence.
The Rig Veda, the very first book, discusses monotheistic thought. So does Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda.
The number of auspicious qualities of God are countless, with the following six qualities being the most important:
- Jñāna (Omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously
- Aishvarya (Sovereignty, derived from the word Ishvara), which consists in unchallenged rule over all
- Shakti (Energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible
- Bala (Strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue
- Vīrya (Vigor), which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations
- Tejas (Splendor), which expresses His self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by His spiritual effulgence
The Nyaya school of Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view. The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a god can only be one. In the Nyaya Kusumanjali, this is discussed against the proposition of the Mimamsa school that let us assume there were many demigods (devas) and sages (rishis) in the beginning, who wrote the Vedas and created the world. Nyaya says that:
[If they assume such] omniscient beings, those endowed with the various superhuman faculties of assuming infinitesimal size, and so on, and capable of creating everything, then we reply that the law of parsimony bids us assume only one such, namely Him, the adorable Lord. There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non-omniscient being, and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God, the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no other way open.
In other words, Nyaya says that the polytheist would have to give elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial spirits, none of which would be logical, and that it is more logical to assume one eternal, omniscient god.
సిక్కు మతము [మార్చు]
Sikhism is a strict monotheistic faith (with some en:panentheistic features) that arose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator. The opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib, known as the Mool Mantra signifies this:
- ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
- Transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār(or ikoo) sat nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṁ gur prasād.
- ఆంగ్లము: One Universal Creator God. The Name Is Truth. Creative Being Personified. No Fear. No Hatred. Image Of The Timeless One, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent. By Guru's Grace ~
The word "ੴ" is pronounced "Ik ōaṅkār" and is comprised to two parts. The first part is simply: "੧" - This is simply the digit "1" in Gurmukhi signifying the singularity of the creator. Together the word means: "There is only one creator god"
- “Monotheism”, in Britannica, 15th ed. (1986), 8:266.
- Monos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
- Theos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
- The compound μονοθεισμός is current only in Modern Greek. There is a single attestation of μονόθεον in a Byzantine hymn (Canones Junii 20.6.43; A. Acconcia Longo and G. Schirò, Analecta hymnica graeca, vol. 11 e codicibus eruta Italiae inferioris. Rome: Istituto di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. Università di Roma, 1978)
- Ecumenical, from Koine Greek oikoumenikos, literally meaning worldwide but generally assumed to be limited to the Roman Empire as in Augustus' claim to be ruler of the oikoumene/world; the earliest extant uses of the term for a council are Eusebius' Life of Constantine 3.6 around 338 "σύνοδον οἰκουμενικὴν συνεκρότει" (he convoked an Ecumenical council), Athanasius' Ad Afros Epistola Synodica in 369, and the Letter in 382 to Pope Damasus I and the Latin bishops from the First Council of Constantinople
- Vincent J. Cornell, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol 5, pp.3561-3562
- Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, p.96
- D. Gimaret, Tawhid, Encyclopedia of Islam
- Ramadan (2005), p.230
- Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877430209.
- Homer H. Dubs, "Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese Philosophy," Philosophy of East and West, Vol. 9, No. 3/4, 1959
- Homer H. Dubs, "Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese Philosophy," Philosophy of East and West, Vol. 9, No. 3/4, 1959
- Śrī Brahma-saḿhitā 5.45
- Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (2004). Dancing with Siva: Hinduism's Contemporary Catechism. Kappa, Hawaii: Himalayan Academy. ISBN 0945497962.
- Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
- Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub.
- Klostermaier, K. (1974). "The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin". Journal of the American Oriental Society 94 (1): 96–107. DOI:10.2307/599733. Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
- Rig Veda: A Metrically Restored Text with an Introduction and Notes, HOS, 1994
- Atharva Veda: Spiritual & Philosophical Hymns
- Shukla Yajur Veda: The transcendental "That"
- Tapasyananda (1991). Bhakti Schools of Vedānta. Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 8171202268.
ఇతర పఠనాలు [మార్చు]
- Dever, William G.; (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites?, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI.
- Silberman, Neil A.; and colleagues, Simon and Schuster; (2001) The Bible Unearthed New York.
- Whitelam, Keith; (1997). The Invention of Ancient Israel, Routledge, New York.
- en:Hans Köchler, The Concept of Monotheism in Islam and Christianity. Vienna: Braumüller, 1982. ISBN 3-7003-0339-4 (Google Print)
ఇవీ చూడండి [మార్చు]
- ఇబ్రాహీం మతము
- Hindu views on monotheism
- Kashmir Shaivism
- Monistic theism
- The People of Monotheism
- Psychology of religion