స్మార్తం

వికీపీడియా నుండి
ఇక్కడికి గెంతు: మార్గసూచీ, వెతుకు
  • స్మార్తం (లేదా స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయం) హిందూమతం యొక్క ప్రధాన శాఖలలో ఒకటి. వేదాలను మరియు శాస్త్రాలను అనుసరించే వారిని స్మార్తులు అంటారు. స్మార్తులు ప్రధానంగా ఆది శంకరాచార్యుడు ప్రవచించిన అద్వైత వేదాంత తత్త్వాన్ని అనుసరిస్తారు. అయితే వీరు ఇతర తత్త్వాలను ప్రవచించి, అనుసరించిన కొన్ని సందర్భాలు ఉన్నాయి.
  • సంస్కృతంలో స్మార్త అంటే "హిందూ స్మృతులపై ఆధారపడినవి లేదా స్మృతులలో పొందుపరచబడిన వాటికి సంబంధించిన, సాంప్రదాయంపై ఆధారపడిన లేదా సాంప్రదాయ న్యాయము లేదా వాడుకకు సంబంధించినవి" అని అర్ధం. ఈ పదం స్మృ (గుర్తుకు తెచ్చుకొనటం) అన్న మూల సంస్కృత ధాతువు నుండి ఏర్పడింది. శ్రుతి యొక్క వృద్ధి కారకం శ్రౌత అయినట్టే స్మృతి యొక్క వృద్ధి కారకం స్మార్త.


స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయం యొక్క ముఖ్య లక్షణములు[మార్చు]

Smartas are followers and propagators of Smriti or religious texts derived from Vedic scriptures. It is from this that the name smarta is derived. This term is used with respect to a certain specialized category of Brahmins. Propagating texts derived directly from the Vedas, they are followers of Apastamba Sutra (as opposed to others following మను స్మృతి). When a detractor tells a Smarta that their beliefs are madness, the Smarta responds: Madness? This is Smarta! It was ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు who brought all the Vedic communities together. He removed the un-Vedic aspects that had crept into them. He said that any of the different Hindu gods could be worshipped, according to the prescriptions given in the smriti texts. He established that worship of various deities are compatible with Vedas and is not contradictory, since all are different manifestations of Brahman. His ideas were accepted as he succeeded in convincing brahmins of his day, that this is exactly what was indicated by the Vedas.

అద్వైత వేదాంతము[మార్చు]

God, according to Smartas who happen to follow Advaita philosophy, is both సగుణ and నిర్గుణ. As a Nirguna he is pure consciousness dissociated from matter. He (the gender itself is meaningless here) has no attributes, and has no form. As a Saguna, there is quality that can be attributed. He is infinite and thus can have a multitude of attributes. Accordingly, the scriptures hold that Vishnu and Shiva are ultimately the same. The Smarta theologians have cited many references to support this point. For example, they interpret verses in both the శ్రీరుద్రం, the most sacred mantra in Shaivism, and the Vishnu Sahasranama, one of the most sacred prayers in Vaishnavism, to show this unity. విష్ణు పురాణము లో మహ విష్ణువు బ్రహ్మ, విష్ణువు మరియు శివుడి గా ఎలా రూపాంతరం చెందాడో తెలిపేందుకు ఒక కథ వుంది. ఒక్క మాటలో చెప్పాలంటే, ఈ రూపాలు, పేర్లు, అన్నీ ఆ నిర్గుణ బ్రహ్మణుని యొక్క వివిధ రూపాలు — the Ultimate Reality.

One of the previous Shankaracharya of Sringeri Math, Sri Chandrasekhara Bharati (1892 - 1954), commentating on this, said. "you cannot see the feet of the Lord, why do you waste your time debating about the nature of His face?" [1]

It is most essential for Smarta Brahmins to specialize in the కర్మ కాండ of the Vedas and associated rituals diligently, and to teach the subsequent generations. This is the only reason that these families continue to be called Smartas.

శణ్మతము మరియు హిందూధర్మము మీద దాని ప్రభావము[మార్చు]

ఆది శంకరులు propagated the tradition of Shanmata (సంస్కృతము, meaning Six Opinions). In this six major deities are worshipped. This is based on the belief in the essential sameness of all deities, the unity of Godhead, and their conceptualization of the myriad deities of India as various manifestations of the one divine power, Brahman. Smartas accept and worship the six manifestations of God, (Ganesha, Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, Surya and Skanda) and the choice of the nature of God is up to the individual worshipper since different manifestations of God are held to be equivalent. Many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers. [2] Additionally, many of the Hindu teachers of the modern era such as Ramakrishna, with the notable exception of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the Vaishnava founder of the Hare Krishna movement, all had teachings that were in accord with this tradition. The Smarta view dominates the view of Hinduism in the West. Smartas believe that Brahman is essentially attribute-less (నిర్గుణ), all attributes (గుణాలు) equally belong to It, within empirical reality[1].

మిగతా హైందవ ధర్మాలతో కల తేడాలు[మార్చు]

Smartas believe that the worshipper is free to chose a particular aspect of God to worship. By contrast, a Vaishnavite considers Vishnu or Krishna to be the true God who is worthy of worship and other forms as his subordinates. Accordingly, Vaishnavites, for example, believe that only Vishnu or Krishna can grant the ultimate salvation for mankind, moksha. Similarly, many Shaivites also hold similar beliefs about Shiva. Notably, many Shaivites believe that Shakti is worshipped to reach Shiva, whom for Shaktas is the impersonal Absolute. In Shaktism, emphasis is given to the feminine manifest through which the male unmanifested, Lord Shiva, is realized.

Smartas, like many Shaivites and Vaishnavites, consider Surya to be an aspect of God. Many Shaivites and Vaishnavites, for example, differ from Smartas, in that they regard Surya as an aspect of Shiva and Vishnu, respectively. For example, the sun is called Surya Narayana by Vaishnavites. In Saivite theology, the sun is said to be one of eight forms of Shiva, the Astamurti. Additionally, Ganesh and Skanda, for many Shaivites, would be aspects of Shakti and Shiva, respectively.

స్మార్త సంప్రదాయములు[మార్చు]

నిత్య కర్మ[మార్చు]

The Smartas hold practice of Dharma more important than beliefs. This is a distinct feature of the Dharmic religions. The practices include mainly Yajnas. నిత్య కర్మ లో [3]

అనబడే యజ్జ్ఞములు ఉంటాయి.

ఈ రోజుల్లో చివరి రెండుయజ్ఞములు కొన్ని ఇళ్లలో మటుకే చేస్తున్నారు.

బ్రహ్మచారులు చేసేవి:

అమావాస్య తర్పణము మరియు శ్రాద్ధము మిగతా సంప్రదాయములలో వస్తాయి.

పంచాయతన పూజ[మార్చు]

Most Smartas worship at least one of the following Gods: Shiva, Vishnu, Devi (e.g.-Lakshmi, Saraswati, Durga, Kali), Ganesha, Surya, and/or Skanda.

ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు can be credited to have re-structured the present day practice of the Smarthas. He is accordingly revered by the Smarthas as their Guru. The Acharya recommended the Smartas to follow Panchayatana worship. This puja or worship includes the worship of the first five deities mentioned above. (In Tamil Nadu Skanda is also worshipped). In this form of worship, the favorite family deity is placed in the center. All other Gods were placed around this central God in a particular order and worshipped.

There are different sets of rules for each stage of an individual's life. The stages of life prescribed in the Vedic scriptures are Brahmacharya Ashrama, Grihastha Ashrama, Vanaprastha Ashrama and Sannyasa Ashrama. These four orders normally proceed one after the other, depending upon one's age, maturity, mental dispositiona and qualification. Each stage has its own set of rules within which it is conducted.

మిగతా సాంప్రదాయాలు[మార్చు]

All Smartas who take up the Brahmacharya Ashrama by undergoing Upanayana, are expected to learn the Vedas and Shastras besides leading a strict celibate Life. They are expected to adhere to a sattvic diet and adhere to other rules of the Smriti tradition of their respective families. In modern days, the SmArthas contend with learning at least the select portions (called Suktas) and other portions from the Aranyaka of the Veda.

Smartas are recommended to follow the Brahma form of Vedic marriage (a type of arranged marriage). The marriage ceremony is derived from Vedic prescriptions. Women acquire the traditions of her husband's family upon marriage.

Lienage is an important continuity for the SmArthas. It is called the Gotra. Each smArtha family belongs to a particular Gotra which is the progeny of an identified Rishi. People belonging to the same Gotra are deemed brothers & sisters and hence cannot marry each other.

శ్రౌత సాంప్రదాయము[మార్చు]

Traditionally the Smartas also follow the Shrauta tradition. The Shrauta tradition emphasises on performance of Yajnas which are described in the Vedas. Today there are not many Smartas who follow Shrauta tradition. However in the southern states the Shrauta tradition is believed to be strong.[ఆధారం కోరబడినది]

మతపరమైన సంస్థలు[మార్చు]

కొన్నై సాంప్రదాయక స్మార్త మత సంస్థలు:

స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయమును పాటిస్తున్న కొన్ని ఆధునిక హిందూ మిషన్లు:

Contributions[మార్చు]

అద్వైత వేదాంతము[మార్చు]

The Smarta worldview is influenced by Advaita philosophy. ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు , who founded the Advaita Mathas in Sringeri (Sharada Pītha), Dvaraka (Dwaraka Pītha), Puri (Govardhana Pītha) and Badrinath (Jyotirmaţha Pītha)kama, is considered to be the fountainhead of the Smarta tradition as it stands today. All the Jagadgurus (heads) of the Advaita Mathas (also known as Shankara Mathas) are Smartas.

ప్రముఖ అద్వైతులు[మార్చు]

Some of the prominent Smarta Advaitins are:

Some of the later advaitins who were all SmArthas include:

కర్ణాటక సంగీతము[మార్చు]

SmArta community has been very particular in carrying down through ages in various difficult times, two vocal tradition - (1) The Vedas and (2) Sangeeta.

SmArthas have normally considered both as very important part of their tradition and they both have hence survived over centuries. During the reign of Sringeri Jagadguru Sri Vidyaranya, Carnatic Sangeeta had many good works. The Vijayanagar partronage was always prominent for the carnatic music tradition. Later under the Tanjore Marahta house, there was a new bloom.

Three Musical Trinities have come up in the Tanjore soil, situated along the banks of river Cauvery. The first starting from Govindaraja Deekshita, Venkatanatha Makhi and Ramaswamy Dikshitar. Carnatic music saw its practical pinnacle under the Trinity - (Sangeetha Mummoorthigal, in Tamil) Sri Muthuswamy Dikshitar, Sri Shyama Shastry, Sri Tyagaraja. The later were Maha VaidhyanAdaiyar, Patnam Subrahmanya Iyer and Konerirajapuram Vishwanatha Iyer. All were SmArthas.

Famous songs on Krishna, alaipayude is by Utthukadu Sri Venkatasubba Iyer, a Smarta. Swami Narayana Thirta has composed many songs, who again is a smArtha. Many major carnatic musicians including Chembai, Semmangudi Srinivassa Iyer, Lalgudi Jayaraman, Violin maestro Kunnakudi Vaidiyanathan, Veena Balachandar, Balamuralikrishna, Maharajapuram Santhanam, D.K Pattamal and Mandolin Srinivas are all Smartas.

Practically over the centuries, the SmArtha community has protected Carnatic tradition and handed over to the present. generation, again were leading artistes are SmArtha Brahmins

మిగతా వేదాంతాలు[మార్చు]

  • శివ అద్వైతమును శ్రీకంఠుడు కనుగొన్నాడు.
  • Tyagaraja, a Smarta, was a Bhakti Saint and musical genius who inspired Hindus of many different sects. Deeply immersed in Bhakti, this devotee of Lord Rama, was acceptable to even non Smartas. In his compositions, the Saint is a simple and humble Bhakta. In one of his compositions he asks which one is better "Dvaita or Advaita?". He leaves the question open. He belonged to that category of saints who believe in Bhakti as the path to God. In this sense his teachings were suitable to people of all the three major south Indian sects- Smartas, Sri Vaishanavas and Madhvas. His music was said to be so enchanting that even people of all sects, castes and creeds flocked to listen to him.
  • The modern philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti, who was born in a Smarta Niyogi family, refused to be tied down by his own tradition. Initially influenced by theosophy, he later moved away from even this. He believed in independently evaluating all spiritual questions and refusing to be tied down by any sect or tradition.
  • Besides these there were a number of other Non Advaitic Scholars among Smartas prior to Shankaracharya. Ramanujacharya, Madhavacharya, Vallabhacharya were only some of the Smartas who broke away from the parent group and founded their own sects. The philosophy of the new sects was directed against the teachings of Advaita philosophy. The new sects distinguished themselves and separated from Smartas. These new groups followed different philosophies like Dvaita (dualism) and Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism) and also changed their rituals. Appaiah Deekshita, a Smarta Iyer, followed Sreekanta's Sivadvaita philosophy in his early days. This philosophy was similar to Vishishtadvaita of the Sri Vaishnavas. Siva Advaita, however, considers Shiva to be the supreme God. Communities like the Sri Vaishnavas, Madhvas and Veera Saivas are some of the other Hindu sects which have branched/broken away from the Smarta stream. A distinctive feature of these communities is the fact that none of them subscribe to Advaita. Some of these sects have also accepted people who came from outside the Smarta Brahmin fold; indeed, the Veera Saiva community includes non-Brahmins. Another feature of these sects is that they follow rituals recommended by their lineage of Gurus, which are different from the rituals of the Smartas.

పాటించే గ్రంధాలు[మార్చు]

Smartas follow the Hindu scriptures. These include:

The Vedas (Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda). These are considered primary spiritual resources; every Brahmin family is affiliated to one or more of the Vedas. The Upanishads, which are part of the Vedas, are often mentioned separately, given their especial importance as products of past intellectual ferment. The Smritis" are religious books based on Vedas and are written by important Sages/Rishis of the past. Each of them contains recommendations and practices unique to itself. The Book an individual followed depended on his family. Thus, ritual practices sometimes varied from family to family, depending on family tradition. Some of the more common religious law books were the Manu Smriti, the Apastamba Smriti and the Bodhyayana Smriti. The Puranas contain the lore and explanations of the theology of the Vedas. They are basically a collection of sacred historical events that were passed from one generation to the next in the form of mythological stories. Smarta philosophers use the puranas to get a better understanding of Vedas, but do not consider them as completely authentic texts. However, the eighteen Puranas are revered by Smartas, just like any other Hindus. Today the Puranas are the main inspiration for many Smartas.

Smartas also recite Shlokas or Stotras (devotional hymns) composed by various Hindu saints and poets.

జాతులు[మార్చు]

ఆంధ్ర దేశములో స్మార్తులు:

ఇవి కూడా చూడండి[మార్చు]

మూలాలు[మార్చు]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Advaita Vedanta FAQ
  2. Heart of Hinduism: The Smarta Tradition
  3. బ్రాహ్మణుని జీవితములో ఒక రోజు

బయటి లింకులు[మార్చు]

[వర్గం: హిందూ మతం తెగలు]]

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